1595 Last modified August 22, 2016

Photonic Theory of Everything

Vernon Brown

It was generally accepted at the turn of the twentieth century that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Even though that idea is not compatible with most currently accepted theories, no one has ever found any evidence that it is not so. Any electromagnetic phenomena confined to a local area is observed as mass. The measure of the amount of mass has as its most elemental constituent the rate of change of electromagnetic fields defined as frequency.

The idea that electromagnetic activity comprises all of nature goes back to the time of Michael Faraday. Recent observations that Quasar red shift amount varies with time adds to the already overwhelming evidence that electromagnetic activity comprises all of nature. The amount of electromagnetic activity in an area determines the impedance of space in that area. The impedance of space directly determines the speed of light. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. The result is gravity, as explained below.

That construct explains all relativity phenomena and unites all the forces of nature as the electromagnetic force. The strength of the electromagnetic force was measured as the force of charge of an electron. This force originates at the classic electron circumference and not at a point as was thought. Much stronger electric forces occur at shorter distances and are seen as the strong force and the weak force. The force of gravity comes about as refraction of light as the path of light bends toward greater impedance in space. Sir Author Eddington explained this process in a paper he published in 1920. Doctor Albrecht Giese provides a more detailed explanation together with the mathematics.

The idea that electric and magnetic activity comprises the totality of the universe still works. There is nothing about it that is contrary to anything we can see, feel, or measure. Not only does the idea explain relativity and all the forces of nature, it also answers perplexing questions like, What is Mass? What is Gravity? and What is Time?

We know that relativity phenomena is real because Maxwell's equations are invariant with respect to movement. They predict the speed of light without regard to the motion of the system. Physicists could explain this by considering that all physical reality consists of a fundamental component that must always move at the invariant speed of light in flat space-time. Poincare, Lorentz, Fitzgerald and others realized this. They developed a set of equations based upon that notion. H. Ziegler discussed this with Einstein, Planck, and others as evidenced in Einstein's article linked by the gold button.

Relativity phenomena and gravity reside at the most fundamental level of nature's reality. Any theory that describes nature should predict relativity phenomena and gravity. This must reside at the most fundamental level of the theory.

The equations known as the Lorentz Transformations show how physical reality must distort with motion. The Lorentz transformations were published in the late eighteen hundreds, years before Einstein published his special theory of relativity. Distortion must be relative to a fixed inertial frame of reference that is at rest in space and not simply relative to other arbitrary frames of reference in order to avoid paradoxes like the twins paradox. The gold button links to a list of evidence that supports a photon-only universe.

Electric charge happens where ever the path of electromagnetic activity bends. The smaller area on the inside of the bend can not balance and neutralize the greater area on the outside of the bend. The imbalance shows up as electric charge. Charge amplitude relates to bend radius such that the tighter the bend, the greater the charge amplitude.

Why does electromagnetic activity always appear as quantum chunks? Photon theory predicts that quantum chunks happen because the amplitude of the E and B fields of photons saturate at a constant value. We deduce the notion of saturation from the fact that electromagnetic amplitude is not a necessary component of the quantum equation for Planck's Constant. If amplitude is variable and one wave length comprises a photon, amplitude would be in the equation. The only variable in the equation is electromagnetic rate of change expressed as frequency.

(Click to enlarge) All quantum phenomena then becomes a direct result of the saturation property of empty space. Photons interact where greatest rate of change occurs. The surrounding fields drive the points through space. Change in electric and magnetic amplitude in spatially extended fields determine the progress of the saturated points through space. Photon interaction only happens near the points. This produces the unusual properties known collectively as wave-particle duality.

Spatially extended fields drive the points through space and determine photon trajectory but interaction only happens near the points. This provides the phenomena observed in double slit experiments. Interaction is most probable at the center line of a photon's path but may happen at an offset depending upon phase relationships of the interacting entities. This provides uncertainty phenomena.

Well established in the General Theory of Relativity, photons must create gravity and gravitate toward each other. As shown in the paper linked by the gold button, the two constants of empty space convey gravity. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability determine the speed of light. The presence of electric and magnetic charge affect those two so that impedance increases. Increased impedance slows the speed of light. The path of light bends toward increased impedance just as the path of a vehicle swerves toward a puddle that impedes it.

The image links to a web page where Doctor Albrecht Giese shows gravity as a refraction process. We add to Doctor Giese's concept the following: Electric and magnetic fields of photons extend out through space forever. At a very small distance away from a photon's central path, amplitude change in the fields is too weak to interact with mass. Since it can't interact, it is invisible to mass. The fields permeate all of space including massive objects. Presence of the fields affect electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to increase the impedance of space.

The force of gravity diminishes as the inverse square of distance. This indicates that gravity propagates in planes like electric and magnetic force. If gravity propagated as a volume through the sphere of distance from its source, it would necessarily diminish as the cube of distance. This is a strong clue that the crossed planes of electromagnetic fields produce gravity.

When some force bends the path of a photon, fields can not cancel because the outside field occupies more area. A residual electric charge extends out from the bend radius. The source of the charge is the photon's fields. The maximum charge amplitude occurs at the circumference of the bend. We suspect that the fine structure constant represents the ratio of the bend radius to charge amplitude.

The photon's path may bend so that a negative electric field remains or it may bend so that a positive field remains. This remaining field bends the photon's path more in the same direction. At one certain frequency and one certain bend radius this feedback and resonance can trap the photon in a stable loop. The result is an electron or a positron with a circumference of one photon wave length.

Frequencies greater than electron energy create tighter loops. Most of these are not stable and uncurl rapidly into a combination of photons and other particles but certain combinations of them may exist for a longer time as composite sandwiched shells of alternating negative and positive charge. A proton consists of three such shells and a neutron consists of four. Shown with sandwiched shells to scale, the avatar to the left represents a neutron. Smaller than a single pixel at this scale, the innermost shell, shell four, disappears.

Electric charge derives from the bend radius of the photon curl of the particle shell. The tighter the bend, the greater the charge. Since a tighter bend results in a smaller radius and charge amplitude diminishes as the square of distance, all charge values measure as one electron charge when sensed at an electron's radius.

Click to enlarge.
A software program in C produces the table at left. The gold button links to the source code of the program. The program calculates the charge, mass, and diameters of shells that comprise protons and neutrons. The program runs from the console and provides output to the console to produce the table. Shell diameters assume that each shell occupies one wave length.

The electric charge of shell three and shell two provide the strong nuclear interaction. As shown below, two of shell three and two of shell two provide the strange dynamic. The four values add up to the strong force value of about one hundred electron forces.

When protons smash together with enough force, their massive inside shells force the outer shells to push through each other. The inner shells become trapped within the outer shells.

Later version showing fields.
Click to enlarge.

When a proton's outer shell merges through that of another proton the inside shells come in close proximity. The negatively charged outer circumference of shells three of each proton face off against each other and the negatively charged inside circumference of shells two.

The strange dynamic of the strong nuclear interaction results from the way the inner shells interact. Any attempt to separate the two protons encounters an increase in force. This gives the illusion that force increases with distance. Actually, like charges must move closer together to push through the outer shells.

Once the outer shells are breached, all sense of the strong force is lost. Any measure we may introduce must sense the force from a distance greater than an electron's radius. Sensed from that distance the measure is exactly one electron force. This is because the amplitude of the electric force diminishes as the square of distance. It diminishes as the square, not the cube, of distance because it propagates as planes and not as a three dimensional volume.

Photon theory does not demand or predict that a neutrino particle exists. In fact the concept of the neutrino is somewhat of a problem. Advocates of photon theory can nnot show how to build a neutral phase-locked shell out of a single photon. Any such shell must be charged, not neutral. Spin polarized photons which are not charged could produce the observed neutrino interactions.

So now we have described photons that pass all tests of reality that we can yet devise. No experiment can show that this universe consists of anything other than electromagnetic activity. This negates most established theory. Particle interaction can not be the sole conveyor of the forces.

Proton and Neutron to scale.