19929 Last modified February 19, 2013
Photonic Theory of Everything
These facts are presented not as teaching but as a reminder of things you already know or can discover very easily. Nature does not hide its construct. It shows clearly to all who will notice that it is a simple combination of electric and magnetic amplitude change.
We have known since the time of Maxwell that:
At the turn of the twentieth century the mainstream idea about space and time was that it was flat in the classic sense. When scientists of the day discovered relativity phenomena they tried to explain the phenomena by suggesting that material things such as clocks and measuring sticks changed shape in exactly the right way to produce the observed results. This seemed a stretch, since they did not know what might cause things to change in exactly the right way.
A few years into the century, Lorentz and a group of scientists noticed that things would necessarily change in exactly the right way if all of nature were comprised solely of light. They developed the Lorentz equations based upon that notion. Space and time remained flat in the classic sense and all of nature was distorted by movement because all of nature was comprised of light and the speed of light was invariant. We seemed on the verge a complete understanding of how the universe works.
Then Quantum Mechanics gained prominence and scientists abandoned the notions of Lorentz. All institutions of learning signed on and Quantum Mechanics became the accepted notion of how the universe is built. In the process, we lost all understanding of why nature demands relativity phenomena. There is still no explanation for relativity or gravity within the concepts of quantum theory. So quantum theory is vastly incomplete if not wrong altogether.
Unification of the forces is not possible within quantum theory, but is easily accomplished within the views that prevailed at the turn of the twentieth century. Four forces of nature seem different within quantum theory. All these forces turn out to be electromagnetic in a photon-only universe. Gravity and the nuclear forces can now be explained within a such a universe.
Nuclear dynamics of the strong force are strange in that the force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear altogether. We show here how relativity phenomena, gravity, and nuclear forces as well as nuclear dynamics develop naturally in a universe comprised only of light. (Click the image to enlarge.)
Although schools teach against it, the photon-only universe idea still works. There is nothing about it that is contrary to anything we can see, feel, or measure. Not only does the idea completely explain relativity, gravity, and all the forces of nature, it also answers perplexing questions like, "What is Mass?" "What is Gravity?" and "What is Time?"
We know relativity phenomena is real because Maxwell's equations are invariant with respect to movement. They predict the speed of light without regard to the motion of the system. This indicates that all physical reality consists of a fundamental component that must always move at the invariant speed of light in flat space-time. Poincare, Lorentz, Fitzgerald and others realized this. They developed a set of equations based upon that notion. H. Ziegler discussed this with Einstein, Planck, and others as evidenced in Einstein's article linked by the gold button.
The equations known as the Lorentz Transformations show how physical reality comprised of a most fundamental element that must always move at the invariant speed of light must distort with motion. The Lorentz transformations were published years before Einstein published his theory of relativity.
Photons may be trapped in high Q resonant cavities of certain crystals. When so trapped, the photons exhibit electric charge. This fact was presented at a conference held in honor of Professor John A Wheeler at UMBC in April of 1995. It was called Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory. The work was presented at the conference but omitted from the published Annals. Experiments like this show that electric charge develops from asymmetry in the bent path of electric and magnetic fields.
The concept that all of nature is made of light alone is very restrictive. Almost every fundamental construct of nature that we can imagine can not happen within the confines of that idea. These include Quantum Theory, Big Bang theory, String theory, and Relativity theory among others. However, the concept that all of nature is made of light does predict and explain all natural phenomena that we can verify by experiment.
Note: Relativity phenomena is real; the theory is wrong in that it ascribes the phenomena to warped space-time. The phenomena develops naturally in flat space-time and a universe made of light.
Since the old concept can't explain modern theory, scholars feel that the old concept must be wrong. The ten billion dollar Super Conducting Super Collider was supposed to finally prove the particle theory. It did not happen. The supposed Higgs particle discovery was merely a very short lived unstable particle that fit some of the observable characteristics of the theory. There was no indication that it might convey mass to other particles.
In a photonic universe, mass is system of electric and magnetic amplitude change. Mass is electromagnetic change. Electric and magnetic amplitude change is mass when considered as a system. Established theory predicts it. Observations show it. Tested equations quantify it. It is as real as reality gets.
We deduce the notion of saturation from the fact that electromagnetic amplitude does not enter into the quantum equation for Planck's Constant. If amplitude were variable it would have to be in the equation. The only variable in the equation is rate of change expressed as frequency.
(Click to enlarge) All quantum phenomena is a direct result of the saturation property of empty space. The points of saturation are observed as particles. The surrounding fields that drive the points through space are observed as waves. Change in electric and magnetic amplitude in surrounding fields determine the progress of the saturated points through space. Photon interaction only happens near the points.
Since the universe is comprised only of electromagnetic phenomena and Maxwell's equations describe that phenomena, there must be a way to describe all the workings of the universe through Maxwell's equations. This turns out to be true when we consider our two added concepts that Maxwell did not know about.
Consider that the seat of the electromagnetic field is the empty space. Any certain photon has no claim of ownership of surrounding electric and magnetic change. Photons must respond to all change no matter which photonic disturbance initiated the change.
The electric and magnetic fields that surround the photon's points of saturation normally change symmetrically. This change in amplitude drives the points through space. But photon interaction happens near the points. This is most probable at the center line of its path, but interaction may occur at an offset depending upon phase relationships of the interacting entities.
Spatially extended fields drive the points through space and determine trajectory. But, interaction only happens near the points. This provides the phenomena observed in double slit experiments. Interaction is most probable at the center line of a photon's path but may happen at an offset depending upon phase relationships of the interacting entities.
Dwell on the above paragraph. It solves the double slit problem. Fields all around drive points. Interaction happens at the points. Any change to the fields affects the trajectory of the points. So there is no mystery. There is no wave-particle duality. There are only points where space is electrically and magnetically saturated. Interaction can only happen near the points. Spatially extended fields drive the points through space. The points look like particles. The fields look like waves.
Most physicists don't realize it without some thought, but, photons do gravitate. Photons create gravity and photons react to gravity. We submit that there are not multiple kinds of gravity. We suspect that there is only one kind, of gravity and that is the kind of gravity that emanates from electric and magnetic change. As shown in the paper linked by the gold button, two properties of space convey gravity by controlling the speed of light.
The image links to a web page where Dr. Albrecht Giese shows with mathematical certainty that gravity is indeed an electromagnetic process. Electric and magnetic fields of photons extend out through space forever. At a very small distance away from a photon's central path, amplitude change in the fields is too weak to interact with mass. Since it can't interact, it is invisible to mass. The fields permeate all of space including massive objects.
No matter how minute electric and magnetic change becomes it still is present and contributes to gravity. The mechanism is that the speed of light depends upon the concentration of the fields. So now, we have two things that must contribute to gravity. One is the variables that control the speed of light through media. The other is the saturation of photon points that must saturate at an offset toward increasing field strength.
Another clue that gravity is an electromagnetic process is that its force diminishes as the inverse square of distance. This indicates that gravity propagates in planes just like electric and magnetic force. If gravity propagated as a volume through the sphere of distance from its source, it would necessarily diminish as the cube of distance. This is a strong clue that the crossed planes of electromagnetic fields are the source of gravity.
We suspect that the force of gravity is conveyed by the electromagnetic constants. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are variables that convey the force. Those two variables control the speed of light. They are stronger toward more electric and magnetic activity and weaker toward less. The stronger the variables, the slower the speed of light. This causes the path of light to bend toward the stronger.
Now it is time to introduce that second added property of photons that Maxwell did not know about. This is the property that helps trap light in patterns to become mass. The property is very simple and has been observed for more than a hundred years. Einstein described it. Sir Author Eddington measured it.
The phenomena is that when an outside force bends the path of a photon, the path bends twice as much as the outside force contribution. We observe this in starlight that passes close to the sun. We can measure this during solar eclipses.
We suspect that Einstein knew of this phenomena before he predicted it in his special theory of relativity. In any event, Einstein attributed it to warped space. Space does not warp in a universe made of light. All of relativity phenomena results from the construct of matter. Matter is relative to light because matter is made of light.
When photons move in a straight line, negative change immediately follows positive change so that space is electrically neutral after a photon passes. But when the path of a photon is bent, its fields lose their symmetry. The fields can not completely cancel each other in the bend. There is a remaining electric charge that moves out from the bend radius. The source of the charge is the photon's fields. The maximum charge amplitude occurs at the circumference of the bend.
The photon's path may bend so that a negative electric field remains or it may bend so that a
Frequencies greater than electron energy create tighter loops. Most of these are not stable and uncurl rapidly into a combination of photons and other particles but certain combinations of them may exist for a longer time as composite sandwiched shells of alternating negative and positive charge. A proton consists of three such shells and a neutron consists of four. The little spinning model at left is a neutron schematic. The smallest shell is much smaller than a single dot at this scale.
Electric charge associated with particles derives from the bend radius of the photon curl of the particle shell. The tighter the bend, the greater the charge.
Since a tighter bend results in a smaller radius and charge amplitude diminishes as the square of distance, all charge values measure as one electron charge when sensed at an electron's radius.
Click to enlarge.
The electric charge of shell three and shell two provide the strong nuclear interaction. As shown below, two of shell three and two of shell two are involved in the dynamic. The four values add up to the strong force value.
The source of the strong nuclear interaction is the forces at the circumference of the outer shells of protons and neutrons.
When a proton's outer shell merges through that of another proton the inside shells come in close proximity. The negatively charged outer circumference of shell 3 of each proton face off against each other.
The charge amplitude of shell three is over forty two times an electron's charge amplitude. There are two shells three and two shells two in close proximity. The total of the forces of all shells in close proximity calculates to be that of he nuclear forces.
The strange dynamic of the strong nuclear interaction results from the way the inner shells are trapped inside the outer shells. Any attempt to separate the two protons encounters an increase in force. This gives the illusion that force increases with distance. Actually, like charges must move closer together to push through the outer shells.
Once the outer shells are breached, all sense of the strong force is lost.
Any measure we may introduce must sense the force from a distance
greater than an electron's radius. Sensed from that distance the
measure is exactly one electron force. This is because the amplitude
of the electric force diminishes as the square of distance.
It diminishes as the square, not the cube, of
distance because it propagates as planes and not as a three dimensional
Photon theory does not demand or predict that a neutrino particle exists. In fact the concept of the neutrino is somewhat of a problem. Scientists who advocate photon theory have been unable to show how to build a neutral phase-locked shell out of a single photon. There is a possibility in photon theory that the neutrino could be a spin polarized photon.
This photonic universe must necessarily exist in non-varying space and time in the classic-common sense. All massive objects are made of photons that move at the constant speed of light. Because of this, they must necessarily experience space and time differently when the mass is moving. The phenomenon of relativity is the natural result of the construct of mass and is not a property of space or time. And, as explained in the gold-button link, gravity is not only predicted but demanded with mathematical certainty by this construct of nature.
When we develop equations to predict how this kind of mass must change with movement we find that we have reproduced equations first developed by H. A. Lorentz at the turn of the twentieth century. His "Lorentz transformations" accurately describe the observed changes in mass when it is measured from different inertial frames of reference.
We introduced two new concepts forced upon us by observed facts of nature. The first, constant photon amplitude, is forced by the fact that electric and magnetic amplitude do not enter into the energy equation of a photon. The second, positive feedback, is forced by the fact that the area outside a curve is greater than the area inside a curve.
So now we have described photons that pass all tests of reality that we can yet devise. If they do exist in space and time, these photons are the underlying framework for the universe and our picture of it is much more clear. Although we may never be completely convinced that our universe exists as such, we can never deny the possibility that it might. No experiment yet devised can show that this universe consists of anything other than photons as we describe them here.