431 Last modified August 22, 2016


Vernon Brown (Photonics 1995)

Deep in the churning bowels of fury that formed the center of an old galaxy, a photon was twisted into being from the torture of plasma debris. Other photons were absorbed by atoms and spit out again, but this photon was so energetic with such a high frequency that atoms did not absorb it. It was a high energy gamma-ray photon.
Most photons bounced around in the star for years before finding a way out but after only a few days, this new photon found the edge of its star of birth and its path straightened, free of interfering forces for the first time. It sped away at its natural speed of light, slowed only slightly by the pull of the huge star's gravity.
Sometimes, as it wandered through space for billions of years, the photon passed other photons. Most of these were low in frequency and so were not energetic enough to bother this photon at all. But, once every few billion years or so, another photon of great energy passed close enough to bend this photon's path.
Then, one instant billions of years after its birth, this photon passed almost dead center through another gamma-ray photon. The bending of paths caused by the high energy fields of both photons curled each into a loop so tight that they passed right through themselves.

Bending in the direction of their electrical fields, the photons found a powerful pushing force caused by the unsymetrical condition of their own bent fields. This pushing force was just exactly half the strength required to keep the photons paths bent into a closed loop.
Immediately after the encounter, this photon began to unfurl toward a straight line again, because its unbalanced field provided only half the force needed to sustain the bend that created the unbalanced field. On its way to a straight line the photon unfurled through its own fields. Its forward end began to feel the in-phase condition of its rearward end as it unfurled toward it. Then, there was a snap of resonance and the power was enough to keep this photon's path locked in a tight loop.

The power of resonance provided the extra force needed and this photon became bound in its tight resonant loop. It still remained essentially intact as a photon with all its properties, but now it spun in spinning loop forming a shell with a spinning circumference (not the direct circumference of a plane through its center) of one photon wave length. It spun in a pattern dictated by its electic and magnetic fields.
It spun there, chasing its tail at the speed of light, a curling cork screw migrating slowly through space. Spinning thus, it formed a sphere but kept its magnetic plane curled into a north-south pole that pointed more toward the direction of movement than in other directions. This photon had become an electron. Close by, spinning at the speed of light and moving slowly away, there was a mirror image of the electron called a positron that was created in the same collision.
Electromagnetic fields moved away from the electron and positron at the speed of light and these gave birth to photons while the two interferred with each other. The force of the fields diminished as the square of the distance away from the electron and positron. This time their force diminished too fast to pull the particles together again, but sometimes the two moved away from each other too slowly and so were pulled together to anhilate each other and become photons again.
This electron spun through space for more billions of years. Because of its unbalanced charge it felt force fields thrown out by galaxies far away, and it also felt the direction from which the fields came. These fields and gravity increased the electron's speed for billions of years until it was finally moving at almost the speed of light.

This photon felt the subtle tug of gravity by means of its central point where saturation of the electromagnetic properties of space occurred. This point of saturation occurred slightly offset towards increasing field strength of fields thrown out by all other photons in the universe. This happened because all fields used up part of the available electromagnetic properties of space.
Many other electrons and positrons moved through space, feeling each other's charge. Sometimes this electron and a positron got caught in each others grasp, and collided at low speed. Their opposite fields then unraveled their loops and they sped away from the collision as free photons again.
Many times this happened over again as more billions of years went by, and this piece of energy was an electron, a positron, a photon, then an electron again. This time, it moved through space as an electron.
Then, one instant, a positron came by and force fields collided. Compressed lines of colliding force in the fields of the electron and positron spewed out low energy photons, converting their momentum to energy. As the distance closed, these spewed out photons grew more and more energetic. Then there was the most violent instant when centers of force fields intertwined.
Force of impact curled the paths of spewed- out photons so tightly that some found their tails when they were forty two times as massive as the electron and positron had been. They then locked in resonance in this massive form. Momentum energy was thus converted to mass.
But, at forty two times the mass of the electron, these particles were not stable by themselves, and many unfurled back to photons, departing at light speed. One that remained unfurled around a very massive positively charged piece born of the positron, and the extra charge gave it more stability. This massive positron-like particle was 1787 times more massive than the electron.
Finally, one last electron loop about 2.5 times as massive as a normal electron formed, making four loops in all. A neutron was born, and close by, vibrating and spinning away, was an anti- neutron formed out of the same collision debris. Each neutron's outside shell was 4.7622 x 10 -13 meters in diameter. Each was like the other, except for the sequence of the charged layers.
A normal neutron began around a most central positive loop, followed by a negative loop, then another positive loop, and a final negative loop. This sequence was just the opposite for the anti- neutron.
Both the neutron and anti-neutron threw off their outer shells after a few minutes. They then became a proton and an anti-proton. The proton soon picked up an electron and became a hydrogen atom.
It was then a neutral atom, and was no longer bashed about by force fields, but it did feel tiny remnants of photon fields. These tiny remnants were both electric and magnetic, but so weak they did not react either electrically or magnetically with particles of mass. All photons did, however, migrate toward increasing field strength of the electric and magnetic fields. There was a fixed amount change amplitude available in space, and the remnant fields used part of it. Photons in mass and photons free in space could not reach their full potential because of this. Their points of maximum amplitude reached that reduced maximum more rapidly where the remnant fields were stronger. This caused the migration toward increasing field strength and caused the phenomenon of gravity.
After a few billion more years, this atom found itself among others of its kind. There was a huge cloud of them, churning around, colliding, bouncing away, absorbing low energy photons into themselves and converting their energy into movement.
This cloud grew more dense, squeezing itself into swirls of hot energetic atoms. Then, one instant, squeezed into frenzied movement, this hydrogen atom slammed into a neutron. It merged right through the neutron's outer shell, and was trapped inside. The force of this proton's outer shell and the neutrons number 3 shell kept the inside shells locked in. Added together, these forces were equal to the force of one hundred normal electrons. It was the strong nuclear interaction.
Shortly after, another proton which had itself bound with a neutron came crashing in, then others, some bound with two neutrons crashed in. Helium atoms were thus formed, and this released photons which were absorbed by nearby atoms, boiling them into even more frenzy. Many atoms bound this way until the massive swirl of hydrogen erupted into a star.
The star exploded into life with such force that it blew away the hydrogen gases that were not near enough to be held tight by its gravity. Some rocky debris remained close in, however, and these began to clump together after a few million years.
Churned and bounced in the middle of the star, the helium atom which was formed of the proton which was formed of the original photon, was constantly tormented. It collided with ever increasing energy with others of its kind. Toward the end of the life of the star, about ten billion years after its birth, this torment grew to the point that helium atoms combined with each other.
But this was not the end. The cycle kept going until heavier and heavier elements were formed. Then one instant, there was a gigantic increase in pressure and many heavy elements fused. Iron, carbon, and all the elements of nature were among the products.
This aging star could not survive the stress. It collapsed upon itself, then blew apart with a shock wave that carried much of itself out into space. Left behind was a very dense core that smoldered and cooled with age.
The original photon was now combined with others in a carbon atom that drifted away from the dying star. For billions of years this carbon atom moved through space, until it was caught up in another cloud of young hydrogen atoms. Finally, out of this cloud, another star was born. But this time, the carbon atom found itself in a rocky clump of debris ninety three million miles from the center of star birth.
This carbon atom was among the debris of the third debris ring from the star. There was another ring of rocky debris further out, and some gaseous rings after that.
After a few billion years, these rings coalesced into planets. A few billion years more and the forth planet from the star cooled into a water cycle. This was the temperature that allowed water to be liquid on its surface.
Life teemed on the water-rich fourth planet, but on the third planet, this carbon atom simmered in heat. Liquid rock flowed so hot that there was no place for life. But, a couple billion years later, the third planet cooled into its water cycle. This carbon atom was caught up in life.
First it lived in crawling things, which lived and died and were eaten by others. This carbon atom moved through life after life, and age after age being recycled through birth and death of living things.
After a couple more billion years, the third planet cooled till water could only be ice and its atmosphere grew thin. Life forms ended on the third planet, but a few billion years later, the second planet cooled into its water cycle. Life flourished there for about five billion years.
Then, all was still in the aging star system. Life was gone and it grew old. Its first death came with an explosion that spread its debris into space to create other star systems. Many billions of years later, its second death came in the center of its aging galaxy.
Deep in the churning bowels of fury that formed the center of this old galaxy, a photon was twisted into being from the carbon plasma gas of this dying atom. Other photons were absorbed by atoms and spit out again, but this photon was so energetic with such a high frequency that atoms did not absorb it. It was a high-energy gamma-ray photon. It went on and on and on in this repeating cycle from ever and ever ago to forever and forever again.