215 Last modified August 22, 2016 The Elementary Particles
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There is agreement among the advocates of a photononly universe that all matter is comprised of photons alone. The elementary particles consist of photons trapped in repeating patterns. There is not agreement about the exact construct and shape of the patterns. I suspect the force is a feedback mechanism that comes from the circumference of the bent path of the photon. There is a school of thought that has the patterns shaped as a torus in which the comprising photon twists as it circles through 720 degrees to complete a pattern. This might possibly be the reality. But I favor a more simple pattern, that of a circle that spins in one plane to complete a resonant circle, then has a composite flatwise spin to form a sphere. There are some constraints that favor the later simple pattern. We know the value of the strong and weak nuclear reactions very well. If these result from electromagnetic forces that originate at the surface of the inner shells of nuclear particles, they must have very specific values. We know that we measure the proton's electric charge to be exactly equal and opposite that of an electron. This limits the charge value at the surface of the proton's shell to that which when diminished as the square of distance, is identical to that of the electron when seen at a distance of the electron's radius. The SquareOfTheShells rule shows this relationship based upon the composite circle sphere concept. The charge values and the mass values are the same when taken in terms of the electron as unity. The graphic below shows schematics of the electron, proton, and neutron comprised of this simple pattern. The software linked builds the graphic and animates it. It is similar to neutrons.cpp and its Function Library. However, this new version is based upon Cartesian Coordinates where neutronlib.h is based mostly on Polar coordinates. The later graph.h library linked below has conversion functions to switch from one system to the other.
The Elementary Particles
