221 Last modified August 22, 2016

Early Notes

A photon moving in a straight line is electromagnetically neutral. Its positive and negative fields balance and neutralize each other. The fields exist as planes situated 90 degrees apart. The fields extend out through space forever and diminish in amplitude as the square of distance away. At a very short distance away from the photon's central points of saturation, the fields are too weak to interact with anything. This makes them invisible to matter.

These invisible electric and magnetic fields contribute to the permittivity and and permeability of space. Maxwell's equations show how Permittivity and permeability determine the impedance of space.

The speed of light is directly determined by this impedance. Dr. Albrecht Giese found that the force of gravity develops from variations in the speed of light. The web page linked by the gold button explains how gravity is merely a refraction process. The path of light bends toward greater impedance. Matter made of light must gravitate toward greater impedance.

A photon moving in anything other than a straight line is not electromagnetically neutral. Its positive and negative fields can not be symmetrical and so cannot balance and neutralize each other. This imbalance shows up as an electric charge.

The shell structure of electrons, protons, and neutrons shows the mechanism by which the elementary particles may form bonds. When a positive ion grabs an electron, the ion punches through the electron's shell and snaps it into place so that it surrounds the ion.

The outside circumference of the electron's shell is negatively charged. The inside of the electrons shell is positively charged facing toward the center. The proton snaps the electron's shell into place so that the electron engulfs the proton. A hydrogen atom results.

What is the mechanism by which gravity bends the path of a photon? There are two properties of space that Maxwell used in his famous description of electromagnetic behavior. They are called the electric and magnetic constants of free space. But, they are only constants in the absence of electric and magnetic activity. Electric and magnetic activity increases the value of the, "constants," in the direction that slows the speed of light. This impedance of light by space was given the symbol, Z, back in the time of Maxwell.

What ever notion one has about the construct of matter, whether it is all photons as in Photon Theory or just mostly photons as in Quantum Theory, the path of light must bend toward the direction of greatest impedance. There is a mathematical certainty that all material things held together by electromagnetic processes must gravitate toward other electromagnetic processes. Any other notion about the source of gravity is an unnecessary distraction.

Schematic of a neutron.