426 Last modified August 22, 2016
Imagine a New Universe
Imagine a universe made of electric and magnetic forces alone. We will show how Maxwell's account of nature operating within this universe can produce all else including gravity and the nuclear forces. In this imaginary universe all the rules of nature are just as we observe them in our own universe. A person placed in this new universe could not determine whether they were in this imaginary universe or our own.
We can represent this electromagnetic field schematically with a simple computer program written in C++ and linked to the SDL library for GUI functions. The classic description of the electromagnetic wave shows it made of changing electric and magnetic fields. The electric field goes vertically with red representing the positive field and blue representing the negative. Yellow and light blue represent the magnetic field.
There is a relationship between the direction of travel, positive and negative of the electric field, and north-south sense of the magnetic field.
James Clerk Maxwell showed that any change in the force of a magnetic field creates an electric field, and any change in the force of an electric field creates a magnetic field. Note that it is the change in the amount of force that does the creating. The changing forces operate against a tensor that causes them to swing from zero to a maximum then back through zero in a repeating sine wave action. Our new universe follows these rules of nature that Maxwell discovered.
Maxwell did not know it, but the maximum force that the electric and magnetic fields reach in this sine wave action is a constant. This action, surrounded by the fields that drive it forward, always moves through space at a constant speed. These two basic constants are the most fundamental realities of our universe. In our new universe we'll show how these two constants force nature to present the phenomena of relativity and the phenomena of gravity.
Consider that Maxwell's equations apply to individual points in space. When a point in space experiences electric and magnetic change its neighboring points must also change in accordance with the equations. The neighboring points change in the same direction with a very slight time lag. These neighboring points do not reset to zero before they begin to change. They modify their present state of change in response to change in neighboring points. We thus describe a wave that exists as a point surrounded by a field of changing electric and magnetic force.
We could invent a completely different force for our new universe and name it Gravity. But why do it when we already have a perfectly good electric and magnetic force that extends outward forever through space. We don't need another force, we only need to build gravity into the electric and magnetic fields we already have.
After a little research we find that gravity has been defined as an electromagnetic phenomena for over a hundred years. Sir Author Eddington published a paper in 1920 that described gravity as a process of refraction of light. Several mainstream physicists currently hold that notion. The web site of Doctor Albrecht Giese presents the concept with mathematical certainty provided only that Maxwell's equations solve for the speed of light.
Our photon provides gravity via points of electric and magnetic saturation surrounded by spatially extended electric and magnetic fields that extend out through space forever. The extended fields produce gravity as described by Doctor Giese and by the web page linked by the gold-bar.
We need now to give our photon properties that will cause it to present itself as a particle. Only two properties are needed to make it curl around so that its front end grabs hold of its back end and it spins in a pattern at its natural speed of light.
The first property our photon needs is positive feedback. We give it this property by noting that it is the photon's fields that drive it through space. These electric and magnetic fields are symmetrical and so drive the point forward in a straight line. But when the photon's path is bent, the electric and magnetic fields that drive it forward can not be symmetrical. The force fields are greater in the area outside the bend. This extra force provides positive feedback that bends the path of the photon more in the same direction.
So positive feedback comes natural and easy and must happen in the photon as we have described it.
Changing electric and magnetic force fields follow the rules of resonance. When our photon is curled upon itself so that its front end meets its back end, resonance catches hold. This adds to the positive feedback and at certain wavelengths a photon can be trapped in a stable repeating pattern. Energetic photon collisions produce a pair of stable resonant patterns.
The patterns are like loops that complete in one wave length. This presents the same electric field to the outside all way around. One of the patterns thus produced has a positive electric charge; the other has a negative electric charge.
These energetic photon collisions thus produce electrons and positrons. If the energy is great enough, more complex particles come out of the collisions. Most of these rapidly decay into photons, positrons, and electrons. All of these particles come out of photon collisions. They do not appear by magic. They do not appear out of nothing. They are the remains of the colliding photons.
We can create very energetic photon collisions by accelerating electrons and positrons in opposite directions in a magnetic container. Then we aim these beams of e+ e- particles so that they collide. Downstream of the collisions we see all of the particles needed to make hydrogen atoms. Many short-lived unstable particles come out of the collisions as well.
Particles created out of photon collision have a spin pattern like that of a photon trapped in a resonant cavity. They seem to always come in pairs so that all conservation laws remain intact. We suspect that it is not the conservation law that forces the action. Rather it is the action we observe that gives us the law.
Some of the one-loop particles that are almost stable become stable when combined with others so that they form shells enclosed within shells. We can use four such shells in the construction of our new universe. We will consider the mass of the electron to be unitary so that the number of its mass is one. The mass of our neutron's outer shell will be about 2.5499 electron masses. This will be shell one. The mass of shell two will be the square of that, shell three the square of that, and shell four mass will be the square of the mass of shell three.
We can do this exercise and add the results to see how close it comes to measured values. The sum of shell two, shell three, and shell four should equal the mass of the proton in units of electron masses. The sum of all the shell masses should be that of Neutron mass. I first did this in 1991 and the calculated values matched measured values to a great degree. I called this process the, Square-of-the-Shells Rule.
The square-of-the-shells gives predictions for the masses of the proton and neutron that agree with actual measurements within about .01 electron masses. Some factor yet unknown may be at work
I wrote a simple computer program to calculate the
square-of-the-shells as part of a Neutron simulator back in 1991.
Here I re-wrote the square-of-the-shells portion
in C to run in a Windows or Linux
console. It takes as input the neutron's outer shell
in electron masses. It then squares
the shells, sums the results and compares that with
measured values of the proton and neutron. Compile
the source code with the following Linux command:
When two protons are slammed together by making them very hot, they sometimes stick. They must be hot enough to overcome a repulsive force that tries to keep them apart at first. Then once stuck together, they are bound by a strong force. We can find those forces in our proton construction.
In our universe, the electron is not a point charge, but is the largest of all the particles. It is seen as a point charge because its charge develops from the photon spinning around its circumference. This photon is what is detected in experiments that attempt to find the size of the electron. The position of the photon within that circumference is always uncertain. The charge of the electron is always seen at distances greater than its radius.
The charge from the proton's outer shell is the same as that of an electron when seen from any distance greater than an electron's radius. The proton's radius is much smaller, however, so at the proton's radius, the charge is 6.5 times the electron force. The ratio of the electric forces present at the shell circumferences follows the square-of-the-shells rule.
When driven by heat to move fast enough, our protons can overcome the repulsive forces of their positive outer shells. Their outer shells merge through each other until the outer shell surface punches right through the outside surface of shell #3. The inner shells then face off against like charges and find an equilibrium between each other and the negatively charged inside surface of shells #2. The repulsive forces of shells #1 are overcome by the speed of movement of the two particles.
The inside circumferences of shells #2 are negative as are the outside circumferences of shells #3. This pushes the inside shells toward each other until their negative charges repel enough to balance the force from the outside shells. The combined forces at work now are those of the two outer shells and the two inner shells. The rule shows us that there are enough forces at work to bind the two protons together; the sum of electric charges on the two shells three and the two shells two are equal to the measured force of the nuclear interaction.
Total force = 42.27723 + 42.27723 + 6.50209 + 6.50209 = 97.58555 = electrons worth of force. That is the value of the strong nuclear interaction. All the charges are electric charges. And since the inside shells are trapped inside the outside shells, the dynamics of the strong force are obvious. The force required to separate the two protons would seem to increase as the inside shells were forced through the outside shells.
In the most extreme energetic conditions shells #3 and #4 could merge and lock together just as do shells #2 and #3. The binding forces of this super mass would be 3672.8646 electron forces. The energy released on such a union would be much more than that of hydrogen fusion. The outer shells may be lost resulting in a kind of mass never seen except maybe in neutron stars.
We can now show with mathematical certainty that photons are the only source of gravity. The gold button to the left links to the proofs. When gravity from a photon causes a change in momentum of other things, the photon source must lose energy. This process continues forever so that light from distant stars drifts through the radio wave lengths to finally cease to exist at all. When these radio signals are examined closely, we will find the displaced spectra of elements just as we do in visible light. This displaced spectra is present in all radio frequency remnants of aged starlight.
Perhaps the easiest of all things is relativity phenomena. Given the universe as we have described it, relativity is a natural result. Nothing that is constructed only of electric and magnetic forces can move faster than the natural speed of those forces. When they move at all they must distort so that the patterns of resonance remain intact.
So now we have constructed an imaginary universe. It is much more simple than the currently favored descriptions of our real universe. But there is no earthly way by any scientific experiment that anyone in our imaginary universe could know that they were in that one, or in this one.