# Incompatible Theories

by
Vernon Brown
Stand Alone Version

The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. That one sentence fully describes an old idea that has had some degree of following among physicists for several hundred years. It became popular at about the turn of the twentieth century but its popularity declined with the introduction of quantum theory. The old theory is not compatible with quantum theory because with quantum theory, particle exchange is responsible for the forces of nature. With the old theory electric force fields are responsible for the forces of nature. There has never been any evidence that the old theory is false.

There are four generally accepted separate forces of nature, the electric, the strong, the weak, and gravity. If the old theory is true, all four must be some form of electric force. The electric, strong, and weak can be solved by considering that particles exist at some size determined by their mass, more massive being smaller. In that case, the electron is the largest of the particles because it is the least massive of all the particles. We know from mass-energy equivalence that higher frequencies translate to more mass and higher frequencies exist at shorter wavelength. Particle size would then conform to patterns of shorter wavelength and so the most massive particles would be the smallest.

Consider that the source of electric charge is the bent path of light and the tighter the bend, the greater the force. The electron then consists of an electromagnetic pattern with a certain surface diameter. The bent photon path that forms the pattern exhibits one electron worth of force. The proton consists of three similar photon patterns. The size, mass , and charge of the patterns must match observations. Masses of the patterns must equate to observed masses of electrons, protons, and neutrons. It turns out that there is a simple rule that provides match ups of these. The rule is: The mass of each pattern is the square of that of the next shell out.

The force of charge diminishes as the square of distance. Size, in our model decreases as the square of distance. Charge originating in the bent path of the inner photon patterns is greater than the charge of an electron but when sensed at the greater distance of the electron's radius, the charge is exactly equal to that of the electron. This explains constancy of electric charge. There is a ratio between the bend radius of the path of light and the force of charge. The tighter the bend radius, the greater the charge. The force of charge originating at the surface of the outer three shells equates to the force of the strong nuclear interaction. This is roughly a hundred thirty seven times the force of charge that originates at the surface of an electron's pattern.

This is not compatible with quark theory where each quark has one third the charge of an electron. Quark theory has no prediction for the source of electric charge. Quark theory prediction that each quark has one third the charge of an electron has no basis other than the QED notion of quark types of UP, DOWN, and TOP. In quark theory, some combination of those three quarks make up protons and neutrons. There is no dominating reason for why this must be so.

The most cited argument against the idea that all physical reality is electromagnetic in nature is that electron size is too small to accommodate its mass-equivalent wave length. But, electron size has never been determined. Attempted measurements showed nothing so it was assumed that the electron was smaller then the capability of instruments to detect. But the instruments were designed to detect something solid, and if electrons only consist of their fields, and nothing else, something solid can never be found. If there is something solid to an electron, and that something solid has any mass at all, it breaks the well established mass-energy equivalence equations. This holds for the other particles as well.

There is a long-standing problem about electrons in atoms. It is not possible for electrons to orbit protons as in the traditional atom structure. Lines of force would stop the electrons motion. Now, with the electron many times larger than protons, we can see that the electron would engulf the proton so that the proton would exist within the electron structure in which case no lines of force need be crossed. Electrons of different energy levels would adjust their planes to be compatible with greater energy being smaller. This solves a puzzle about helium.

A helium atom consists of two protons, usually two neutrons, and two electrons. Yet, it is smaller than a hydrogen atom with one proton and one electron. In our new atomic structure with electrons engulfing nuclei, we simply have helium electrons with greater energy than hydrogen electrons. Since greater energy equates to a shorter wavelength the electron pattern in helium would be smaller.

Physicists have spent lifetimes developing energy levels in atoms and will be very reluctant to think in different terms. The maths they developed are still relevant, its just the visualization that changes from an impossible scenario to a possible one. Electrons absorb and emit photons, just as before, but they change size in response, not orbits. Electrical patterns at higher energy levels are smaller, not larger as with the orbital theory.

Sir Author Eddington described electromagnetic gravity in a paper he published in 1920. A current day physicist Doctor Albrecht Giese arrived at the same conclusion independently. They both ascribe the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Electromagnetic activity in an area directly determines the impedance of that area. Impedance of an area of space determines the speed of light through that area. Comprised of light, material particles must migrate toward greater impedance. This notion solves another great puzzle of nature. Why does gravity bend the path of a photon of light twice as much as it bends the path of a particle of matter?

Doctor Albrecht Giese shows why this is so. It is because patterns of light that make up the elementary particles have components that move in all directions. Some will be radial to the massive object and some will be tangential to the massive object. Doctor Giese shows that the radial component will experience the full force of gravity while components moving tangential to it will only experience half the force of gravity. Components part way between radial and tangential directions experience portions of the force.

The Big Bang scenario of the creation of the universe is not compatible with the old idea that electromagnetic activity comprises all of nature. An early expansion stage in the Big Bang scenario violates many natural laws that we hold to be valid. We have no evidence that the natural laws of nature change over time, so we can guess that they probably did not.

The notion that Black Holes exist is not compatible with the idea that gravity derives from electromagnetic activity. Several unexplained things about gravity tell us that we do not yet have it right. Einstein's General Relativity comes close but fails to explain the rotation speed of galaxies. Also, elliptical orbits do not behave exactly the way they should. There seems to be a kind of negative feedback that weakens gravity as gravity increases. We do know that increased gravity slows time. Force multiplied by time determines acceleration. So there is a possible source of the negative feedback in gravity. It involves relativity concepts that are ignored, but should not be. This negative feedback assures that a gravitational singularity can never be reached. A super massive mass can never reach the status of a Black Hole. Einstein knew this and stated it several times.

Institutions of higher learning have embraced quantum theory to the extent that anything that suggests it may not be correct can not be published. This increases the life of quantum theory. Without this strange adherence to current ideas, quantum theory probably would not have survived Erwin Schrodinger who with Einstein thought that quantum theory was a great scourge of physics.

Michael Faraday was probably the originator of the concept that all of nature derives from the electromagnetic field. Publications of his time produced cartoons that ridiculed the idea. Mainstream physicists considered Michael Faraday as an outsider who should dine with the servants rather than sit at the main table with the learned few. Academia continues to avoid the idea of a photon-only universe and still ridicules the idea while accepting wildly weird notions like quantum theory.