# Electromagnetic Gravity

by
Vernon Brown

 Dr. Albrecht Giese has worked out a similar hypothesis that does not yet abandon Quantum Theory. The phenomena of gravity is a simple refraction process in which the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. No matter the fundamental theory, most of the mass of material things comes from electromagnetic activity in them. The presence of electromagnetic activity impedes additional electromagnetic activity. These facts alone demand gravity. Note: Gold button links to excerpt from Eddington. The link shows that Eddington was aware that it is a mathematical certainty that gravity must be a process of refraction.

There is an approach to the description of gravity as an electromagnetic phenomena that shows for certain that the ambient electromagnetic field is responsible for at least some, and maybe all, gravitational phenomena. We look to Maxwell's equations for proof of this. The equations rely upon two properties of empty space. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability determine the speed of light through transparent media. The speed of light is equal to one divided by the square root of the product of those two properties.

The amount of electric and magnetic charge in an area affect the value of those two properties. The properties act as a kind of resistance of a media to accept electric and magnetic fields. This is a feedback mechanism that is not well understood and is missing in many places where it has an effect. The Big Bang concept, for example, is not possible when this feedback mechanism is applied. As gravity approaches a singularity, time dilation restricts acceleration and retards further development.

The feedback mechanism is missing from the equations of General Relativity by Einstein. Einstein was aware of this and hoped to correct it with a final theory that unified all the forces of nature. He stated that the final solution must explain all natural phenomena through singularity free equations. The equations of GR allow the Black Hole singularity and so can not be complete.

Einstein:
"We shall then, I feel sure, have to return to the attempt to carry out the program which may be described properly as the Maxwellian-namely, the description of physical reality in terms of fields which satisfy partial differential equations without singularities."

At the turn of the twentieth century, most physicists thought that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Lorentz showed that if that was so, and space-time was flat, material things must distort with motion. With the help of others, he developed a set of equations to describe that distortion. We know these equations as the Lorentz Transforms. They show that the experience of time by material things must slow when the material things move with respect to flat space-time.

That effect is missing from Einstein's General Relativity and so GR predicts that Black Holes are possible. Einstein assumed that relativity would not be a factor in the same inertial frame. That is a major difference between Einstein's idea about the cause of relativity and Lorentz's idea about the cause of relativity. With the Lorentz notion, effects of relativity are real even in the same inertial frame. They are just not detectable in that frame.

Any moving object tends to bend its path toward the direction of increasing resistance to its movement. When a car hits a puddle, the car swerves toward that side. The same holds for the path of light. The impedance of space determines the speed of light. Electromagnetic activity in an area increases the impedance.

Maxwell showed that permeability and permittivity determine the impedance of space. The two variables control the speed of light. The presence of light affects the variables, so that light moves more slowly in the presence of light. Since field intensity controls the speed of light, the path of light must bend in the direction of increasing field intensity. Any object made of light must gravitate toward increased field intensity.

We were surprised to find that most physicists did not know that photons create gravity. We discovered this when we casually mentioned it at Science Forums. After a short argument, moderators of the forum concluded that we were right. It settled on the fact that photons must create gravity according to the theory of General Relativity. It is built in to the equations of that theory. It was not by accident that the notion found its way into the theory. It was a necessary element. Otherwise the equations don't work.

A photon is electric and magnetic amplitude change that ripples through space at its natural speed. Its energy is spread over a spatial area that determines the path of its central points. Although the path is determined by fields spread over a spatial area, action only happens near the central points. This simple fact is the source of the confusion about wave-particle duality.

In a gauge field where amplitude of these two properties is spread out so that one direction decreases in amplitude and the other direction increases in amplitude, the path of light bends toward the direction of increase in amplitude. It is well known that the path of light bends twice as much as gravity can account for. This is a positive feedback mechanism that when coupled with resonance, can trap a photon in a repeating pattern.

We see the effect of these two properties in transparent media like glass. It is the mechanism that produces a spectrum because light moves more slowly where fields are concentrated. So, the path of light bends. This is exactly what happens in a gravity field. The path of light bends.

Consider that mass is comprised of photons as described in the papers linked by the gold buttons. It is plain to see that matter so comprised must gravitate toward increasing field strength of remnant electromagnetic fields. Quantum theory accepts the reality that most of the mass of all material things derives that mass from electromagnetic activity. So even in quantum theory, gravity must be an electromagnetic process.

When trapped in resonant patterns to become mass, photons still radiate the fields. These fields radiate outward and diminish in amplitude as the square of distance. The fields are two weak to interact with matter except at very close proximity to their central path through space. Since they can't interact with matter, they extend right through matter. The fields continue to move outward forever and travel at the speed of light. These fields affect permittivity and permeability such that the two variables increase in amplitude as the fields increase in quantity and amplitude.

As early as 1986 I suspected that gravity was somehow the cause of the red shift in light from distant stars and galaxies. At that time I did not realize that photons are the only source of gravity. Now that we know the mechanism of gravity, we can see with mathematical certainty that gravity is indeed the cause of the red shift.

Any time a force causes any entity to change momentum, work is done. The energy to do this work by means of gravity had to come from the photons that created the gravity. Photons free in space create gravity that can change the momentum of other entities in space. Energy must be conserved. Therefore photons in space must lose energy as they age.

Massive objects in space accumulate momentum through gravitational attraction. The objects eventually end up at the center of some galaxy where they are churned back into energy by a super massive whirl of ions at the galactic center. The energy leaves the galaxy in streams of gamma radiation perpendicular to the galactic plane.