# Incompatible Theories

by
Vernon Brown
Stand Alone Version

The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. That one sentence fully describes an old idea that has had some degree of following among physicists for several hundred years. It became popular at about the turn of the twentieth century but its popularity declined with the introduction of quantum theory. The old theory is not compatible with quantum theory because with quantum theory, particle exchange is responsible for the forces of nature. With the old theory electric force fields are responsible for the forces of nature. There has never been any evidence that the old theory is false.

There are four generally accepted separate forces of nature, the electric, the strong, the weak, and gravity. If the old theory is true, all four must be some form of electric force. The electric, strong, and weak can be solved by considering that particles exist at some size determined by their mass, more massive being smaller. In that case, the electron is the largest of the particles because it is the least massive of all the particles. We know from mass-energy equivalence that higher frequencies translate to more mass and higher frequencies exist at shorter wavelength. Particle size would then conform to patterns of shorter wavelength and so the most massive particles would be the smallest.

Consider that the source of electric charge is the bent path of light and the tighter the bend, the greater the force. The electron then consists of an electromagnetic pattern with a certain surface diameter. The bent photon path that forms the pattern exhibits one electron worth of force. The proton consists of three similar photon patterns. The size, mass , and charge of the patterns must match observations. Masses of the patterns must equate to observed masses of electrons, protons, and neutrons. It turns out that there is a simple rule that provides match ups of these. The rule is: The mass of each pattern is the square of that of the next shell out.

The force of charge diminishes as the square of distance. Size, in our model decreases as the square of distance. Charge originating in the bent path of the inner photon patterns is greater than the charge of an electron but when sensed at the greater distance of the electron's radius, the charge is exactly equal to that of the electron. This explains constancy of electric charge. There is a ratio between the bend radius of the path of light and the force of charge. The tighter the bend radius, the greater the charge. The force of charge originating at the surface of the outer three shells equates to the force of the strong nuclear interaction. This is roughly a hundred thirty seven times the force of charge that originates at the surface of an electron's pattern.

This is not compatible with quark theory where each quark has one third the charge of an electron. Quark theory has no prediction for the source of electric charge. Quark theory prediction that each quark has one third the charge of an electron has no basis other than the QED notion of quark types of UP, DOWN, and TOP. In quark theory, some combination of those three quarks make up protons and neutrons. There is no dominating reason for why this must be so.

The most cited argument against the idea that all physical reality is electromagnetic in nature is that electron size is too small to accommodate its mass-equivalent wave length. But, electron size has never been determined. Attempted measurements showed nothing so it was assumed that the electron was smaller then the capability of instruments to detect. But the instruments were designed to detect something solid, and if electrons only consist of their fields, and nothing else, something solid can never be found. If there is something solid to an electron, and that something solid has any mass at all, it breaks the well established mass-energy equivalence equations. This holds for the other particles as well.

There is a long-standing problem about electrons in atoms. It is not possible for electrons to orbit protons as in the traditional atom structure. Lines of force would stop the electrons motion. Now, with the electron many times larger than protons, we can see that the electron would engulf the proton so that the proton would exist within the electron structure in which case no lines of force need be crossed. Electrons of different energy levels would adjust their planes to be compatible with greater energy being smaller. This solves a puzzle about helium.

A helium atom consists of two protons, usually two neutrons, and two electrons. Yet, it is smaller than a hydrogen atom with one proton and one electron. In our new atomic structure with electrons engulfing nuclei, we simply have helium electrons with greater energy than hydrogen electrons. Since greater energy equates to a shorter wavelength the electron pattern in helium would be smaller.

Physicists have spent lifetimes developing energy levels in atoms and will be very reluctant to think in different terms. The maths they developed are still relevant, its just the visualization that changes from an impossible scenario to a possible one. Electrons absorb and emit photons, just as before, but they change size in response, not orbits. Electrical patterns at higher energy levels are smaller, not larger as with the orbital theory.

Sir Author Eddington described electromagnetic gravity in a paper he published in 1920. A current day physicist Doctor Albrecht Giese arrived at the same conclusion independently. They both ascribe the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Electromagnetic activity in an area directly determines the impedance of that area. Impedance of an area of space determines the speed of light through that area. Comprised of light, material particles must migrate toward greater impedance. This notion solves another great puzzle of nature. Why does gravity bend the path of a photon of light twice as much as it bends the path of a particle of matter?

Doctor Albrecht Giese shows why this is so. It is because patterns of light that make up the elementary particles have components that move in all directions. Some will be radial to the massive object and some will be tangential to the massive object. Doctor Giese shows that the radial component will experience the full force of gravity while components moving tangential to it will only experience half the force of gravity. Components part way between radial and tangential directions experience portions of the force.

The Big Bang scenario of the creation of the universe is not compatible with the old idea that electromagnetic activity comprises all of nature. An early expansion stage in the Big Bang scenario violates many natural laws that we hold to be valid. We have no evidence that the natural laws of nature change over time, so we can guess that they probably did not.

The notion that Black Holes exist is not compatible with the idea that gravity derives from electromagnetic activity. Several unexplained things about gravity tell us that we do not yet have it right. Einstein's General Relativity comes close but fails to explain the rotation speed of galaxies. Also, elliptical orbits do not behave exactly the way they should. There seems to be a kind of negative feedback that weakens gravity as gravity increases. We do know that increased gravity slows time. Force multiplied by time determines acceleration. So there is a possible source of the negative feedback in gravity. It involves relativity concepts that are ignored, but should not be. This negative feedback assures that a gravitational singularity can never be reached. A super massive mass can never reach the status of a Black Hole. Einstein knew this and stated it several times.

Institutions of higher learning have embraced quantum theory to the extent that anything that suggests it may not be correct can not be published. This increases the life of quantum theory. Without this strange adherence to current ideas, quantum theory probably would not have survived Erwin Schrodinger who with Einstein thought that quantum theory was a great scourge of physics.

Michael Faraday was probably the originator of the concept that all of nature derives from the electromagnetic field. Publications of his time produced cartoons that ridiculed the idea. Mainstream physicists considered Michael Faraday as an outsider who should dine with the servants rather than sit at the main table with the learned few. Academia continues to avoid the idea of a photon-only universe and still ridicules the idea while accepting wildly weird notions like quantum theory.

# Recent Realizations

For over a hundred years now physicists have known that photons both create gravity and respond to gravity. However there has never been a clear understanding about just what it is that causes gravity. Over the years we have thought about that a lot and recently came across the web site of Doctor Albrecht Giese. He ascribes the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. This notion was also held by Sir Author Eddington who published a paper about it in 1920. Excerpt here

Doctor Giese describes the mechanism very well but does not provide the fundamental cause of the refraction other than that gravity slows the speed of light and the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. But this seems to be a circular argument. We can provide the fundamental cause of the slowing of light speed and break out of that circular argument. But first a little background:

The main purpose of this web site is to investigate whether or not there exists anything in this universe other than electromagnetic activity. That idea is more than a hundred years old and has never been falsified. Since that idea precludes most accepted theories, the falsification of it should be a high priority, but it is hardly ever even mentioned in mainstream scientific media. The oldest mention we can find of the idea comes from the time of Michael Faraday and was of the form: "The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field." That old idea easily unifies all the forces of nature as shown here.

Now to get back to the fundamental cause for the slowing of light speed in the presence of matter. In accord with the old idea that has never been falsified, all of matter consists of electromagnetic activity. It is just a small step forward then to hypothesize that electromagnetic activity provides the mechanism that slows the speed of light. That mechanism is that the presence of electromagnetic activity increases the impedance of space. We can think of this as negative feedback provided by electromagnetic activity upon itself.

In order for this to work we must examine just how it is that light speed is slowed. Accepted theory is that light is repeatedly absorbed and emitted by electrons in atoms, but this does not work here. Why should it be that the impedance of space determines the speed at which atoms absorb and emit light? It is more likely that the impedance of space slows the rate at which electromagnetic amplitude changes. With that notion, we close the circle to complete the hypothesis that gravity is nothing more than the impedance of space as regulated by the presence of electromagnetic activity.

We can now predict that the amount of red shift in light from distant objects in space will vary according to the amount of electromagnetic activity the light encounters on its way to the observer. The reasoning is this: The gravity provided by the electromagnetic activity of photons on the way to the observer may change the momentum of objects in space. This change of momentum requires energy that must come from the photons providing the gravity. Clouds of ions and space debris move in and out of the light path, and red shift varries accordingly.

We suspect that this variation in red shift has already been observed. However, no one would dare publish a report about such an observation. What we do find published are reports about quasars that become normal galaxies over the space of a few years. How can that happen without a change in the amount of red shift?

Electromagnetic activity in space directly determines the impedance of space which directly determines the speed of light. The speed of light directly determines gravity in accordance with the notions of Sir Author Eddington and Doctor Albrecht Giese. Proof in support of the hypothesis are time variant changes the amount of red shift in light from distant quasars.

# Where We Stand in 2015

by
Vernon Brown

After decades of following the work of true physicists with advanced doctorate degrees around the world I found that only a dozen or so have a good understanding of how the universe works. They are not widely known because they know the reality of nature and word of this is forbidden. These physicists know the true cause of gravity, relativity, mass, quantum, unification of the forces, and many other things academia deems unknown. Only a few are brave enough to convey the knowledge they have gained.

Certain conditions are necessary for the workings of the universe to be as it is observed to be. It is necessary, for example, that the universe exists in classic flat space-time. It is necessary that time plods on at a constant rate and does not vary as academia suggests. Given these constants, we can explain all observations as we will do below.

Flat space-time and a non-expanding universe are necessary in order to understand the true cause of relativity phenomena. Physicists of the past did understand this but those of them who embraced Einstein's special relativity gave up that understanding. Lorentz and the group of physicists that developed the Lorentz transformations knew the true cause of relativity phenomena and kept the knowledge current. As we will elaborate below, relativity phenomena results from the constant light-speed of the most elemental constituents of matter.

The concept that the universe has existed for a longer time than anyone can imagine and is not expanding has been termed a static universe. But this universe is very dynamic. Energy becomes matter and matter becomes energy in a never ending cycle. We can see this happening as galaxies churn matter into energy and squirt it out into huge bubble-like halos that exist around galaxies. All stars contribute with constant streams of positive ions that accelerate away from positively charged stars. Positive ions accelerate away in the charge field of their parent stars. Moving charged particles create electromagnetic fields that exist throughout space. Once thought to have little affect, these fields now seem to be the dominate force in the universe.

Gravity is an electromagnetic process as was explained by Sir Author Eddington in a paper he published in nineteen twenty. Doctor Albrecht Giese arrived at this notion independently and explains the process at his web site. Albrecht Giese explains gravity. Basically, the presence of matter increases the value of the so called constants of space. Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are said to be constants. However, they are only constant in a perfect vacuum. Since there does not exist such a vacuum, the constants are never constant.

These constants of space determine the impedance of space and the impedance of space determines the speed of light. The greater the impedance, the slower the speed of light. The presence of electromagnetic activity increases the impedance of space. Matter has an equivalent electromagnetic activity. So the presence of matter increases the impedance of space accordingly. The impedance of space translates directly to gravity. Impedance governs the rate at which electromagnetic amplitude can change and so slows the speed of light. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised of light, massive objects must migrate toward the direction of greater impedance.

We have known for at least a hundred years now that gravity slows the speed of light. The impedance of space directly determines the speed of light. So, gravity must increase the impedance of space. Gravity thus provides negative feedback for gravity. This fact is not accounted for in either Newton's gravity or in Einstein's general relativity. However it is there as explained above and so must be accounted for. The absence of this property may produce errors in calculations of galactic spin rate and elliptical orbits of planets. When spin rates and orbits are adjusted for this gravitational negative feedback, dark matter is not needed.

Photons create gravity and respond to gravity. We can call this kind of gravity, photon gravity. We know that this kind of gravity exists. However, we do not know that any other kind of gravity exists. Matter creates gravity but matter consists of photons. So photons in matter may be the source of the gravity created by matter.

Physicists recently discovered that the wavelength of light shifts toward the red when light encounters electron and ion clouds in space. The mechanism of that red shift may be a gravitational interaction between photons of light and particles in space. Gravity created by photons causes a change in momentum of space debris. Photons thus give up energy to change the momentum of space debris. This shows up as a red shift that increases with time. The amount of red shift is directly related to the amount of debris fields through which the light must travel on the way to the observer. Most of the debris fields are hydrogen clouds and these tend to be close to the same size. Each cloud imparts a quantity of red shift according to its size.

We should expect the amount of red shift of some distant galaxies to change with time as the path of light to them changes. This would be rare and slow to form due to the great distances involved. This would be most likely to happen with the most distant galaxies and should occur in steps as some debris fields are omitted from the path and others added. This would be evidence against the standard model and so would not be published by any peer reviewed journal. Peer reviewed journals seem to only publish papers in line with current thinking. This prevents investigation into radically new concepts because no matter the validity of discovery everyone knows that the discoverer will be destroyed by their peers. Maybe, long after their death, those who added to the knowledge base can be recognized.

Sub atomic particle size has been measured and well documented. However, the method of measurement could not possibly detect correct size. The assumption is that there is something solid from which electrons will bounce. But a proton construct that consists of multiple single-photon shells can not be detected by that method. High energy electrons punch right through the outer shells of protons and bounce off the more energetic inner shells. So particle structure of protons and neutrons can not be detected by present methods of measurement. Classic calculations of particle size based upon the wavelength of constituent photons produce a much more likely correct size. Careful control of electron energy could measure particle size and structure. Doctor Robert Hofstadter working with the particle accelerator at Stanford University detected particle structure this way. He was awarded the Nobel prize in 1961 for his efforts.

Current accepted notions of quantum electrodynamics have the electron as a point charge with no actual size. Classically, electron size was based upon the wave length of its equivalent energy. Atomic structure and electron scattering are better understood using the classic electron size. For example, it is not possible to construct an electron orbit of atomic nuclei using the point charge concept. However, it is possible to use the classic electron size and construct a stable atom. With this method, the electron becomes the largest of the particles. It would completely engulf atomic nuclei and be stable without violating the electrostatic principles that would cause an orbiting point charge to crash into the nuclei.

When particle size is based upon the wave length of the equivalent energy of elementary particles the more massive particles have shorter wave length and so must be smaller. When we consider that the electron would comprise one complete wave cycle, there would be a positive half cycle and a negative half cycle. This provides two maximum charge half cycles, one negative and one positive, that would be observed to have a spin state of one half.

Throughout history academia has clung to wrong notions about the construct of the universe. They are very slow to adjust as new facts are discovered and tend to work the new factual discoveries into their wrong ideas. In the past it was Aristotle who advocated an earth centered solar system. Before Aristotle the Greek Aristarchus of Samos proposed a sun centered system similar to the Copernicus model we accept today. However, over a thousand years would pass before academia grudgingly accepted the Copernicus model.

Today, several similar notions are at conflict in physics. The Big Bang creation theory is only now being questioned after about a hundred years of embrace by academia. Quantum electrodynamics and indeed the entire notion that all the forces are transferred by particle exchange also must be questioned. Physicists who understand the true nature of the universe must whisper among themselves lest they be destroyed by academia. Most new hypothesis are wrong to some extent but among the thousands of wrong ideas those that depict the true nature of the universe grows stronger as they are nurtured by those few physicists willing to think for themselves and whisper their thoughts to each other.

# Reality Of Nature

Nature has no secrets; only great truths that it readily shows to all who will look. Someone somewhere knows all of these great truths but no one individual knows all. Academia's role is to select from among those who know, that set of known things that most likely represent reality. So when we say we just don't know, we really mean that academia has not yet selected from among the many competing theories, that set of ideas that explains the unknown subject. The slow pace of academia's selections keeps us from accepting wrong ideas, in theory. But academia has a very poor track record. In all of recorded history, academia selected the unreal over the real almost every time.

For example, academia choose the earth centered solar system model of Aristotle and Ptolemy over that of astronomer Aristarchus of Samos Greece (310 - 230 BC) who proposed a sun centered system almost identical to that of Copernicus. We only know of the Aristarchus proposal because Archimedes described it in his book, "The Sand Reckoner". Academia liked the unreal Ptolemy model because it fit the religious views of the time. It was blasphemy to suggest that the earth was not the center of the universe. A sun centered solar system was gradually and grudgingly accepted after Copernicus showed the mathematical beauty of it. Published just before his death in 1543, his ideas were immediately trashed and ridiculed by academia.

Hundreds of such examples abound throughout history. That brings us to the point of this set of thoughts. Among the most sacred ideas entrenched in academia today are those of Quantum theory. Scholars even suggest that Einstein and Schrodinger were senile because they did not accept Quantum Theory. Philosophers said from the beginning that Quantum Theory was philosophically unsound at its foundation. They said this because Quantum Theory did not meet philosophical tests for reality. It now is blasphemy to suggest that Quantum Theory may not represent reality.

When we look back, we find that philosophical reality and accepted theory converge at about the turn of the twentieth century. At that time the prevailing notion about physical reality was that the electromagnetic field comprised all of it. Physicists of the time formulated a set of equations based upon that notion. This set of equations, known as the Lorentz Transformations, still predicts all of relativity phenomena. Nothing observed in nature rules out the notion that electromagnetic activity accounts for all of it. However, the notion that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field, is not compatible with Quantum Theory. It seems that when reality does not agree with Quantum Theory, academia suspects that reality is wrong.

We each can develop our own unique understanding of the way the universe works by choosing ideas from among renowned physicists. We will do that now. The rules are simple. We start at the place where philosophical reality and accepted theory converged. We inspect ideas that developed from that time in the past to the present. We select from among renowned physicists, ideas that bring back causality and philosophically sound notions to the description of reality.

Soon after the turn of the twentieth century, several theories attempted to explain relativity phenomena. We join Doctor Albrecht Giese and accept as real the Lorentz version of relativity. In doing so we must reject Einstein's version. Einstein's notion that inertial frames of reference were reciprocal allowed paradoxes such as the twins paradox where each twin sees the other age more than himself. The Lorentz version of relativity avoids this by providing a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. All phenomena is relative to that special frame. Academia still prefers the Einstein version.

We accept as real the notion of gravity as explained by Sir Author Eddington in 1920. Eddington surmised that the path of light must always bend toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised of light, material objects must migrate toward that same direction. Current day physicist, Doctor Albrecht Giese of Germany, independently arrived at that same notion about gravity. Doctor Giese shows with mathematical certainty why it is that the path of light bends twice as much as the path of material objects bend as each passes a gravity source. Other notions about gravity do not explain this. Academia does not yet accept this great truth.

Two constants of empty space determine the speed of light in a perfect vacuum. However, there is no place where a perfect vacuum exists. The presence of electromagnetic activity alters the two constants such that the greater the activity, the greater the constants, and the slower the speed of light. Maxwell's equations relate the speed of light to electric permittivity and magnetic permeability such that the speed of light equals one divided by the square root of the product of the two constants. In a universe where all things consist of electromagnetic activity, material objects radiate massive amounts of the fields.

Sir Author Eddington provided another great notion at a time when it was not possible to test it. That notion was that starlight must warm space debris and provide a black body radiation temperature of about 3.18 K. This is close to the measured value of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of about 2.725 K. So we accept Eddington's idea and reject the idea that the CMBR represents the remnants of a cooled down Big Bang. There was no Big Bang. Academia still accepts the notion of a Big Bang, even though physical laws of nature must be violated to arrive at that notion.

Academia still has no clear answer to the question, "what is mass?" But a few physicists have known the answer since the turn of the twentieth century. The great French mathematician, Jules Henri Poincare noticed that pulses of light had the property of momentum. That property was previously associated only with matter, or mass. He quantified the momentum of light as equivalent to mass with an equation that stated that mass equals the frequency of the light divided by the speed of light squared. Substitute the word, "is," for the equal sign and we have the answer to the question, "what is mass". It is variation in the amplitude of electric and magnetic fields. Mass is electromagnetic change. We sense the mass when the change is confined to a local area. Einstein referred to this equation as E = mc2 in some of his works.

Doctor Robert Hofstadter of Stanford received the 1961 Nobel prize in physics for his discovery of atomic nuclear structure. He proposed a simple shell structure for atomic nuclei. Academia has not yet accepted a shell model and Hofstadter never developed his hypothesis further. We can propose a shell structure for elementary particles consistent with Hofstadter's work. Such a structure has atomic nuclei comprised of sandwiched shells such that each shell mass is the square of the mass of the next shell out. Four such shells make up a neutron and three make up a proton. The sum of the calculated masses fit the measured values.

Doctor Hofstadter bombarded atomic nuclei with electrons of energy on the order of two hundred million electron volts. He calculated nuclear structure based upon how the electrons scattered. The scatter pattern also indicates the size of the particle from which the electrons scattered. Higher energy levels detect smaller particles and miss the subtle electromagnetic structure. The shell structure proposed here consists only of subtle electric and magnetic fields. Higher energy levels miss them completely. One photon comprises each shell. Its wave length determines shell size. Based upon this, the electron must be the largest of the elementary particles. Electrons do not orbit, or exist as a probability cloud around protons. The much larger electrons engulf smaller protons and neutrons.

Doctor Max Planck discovered that electromagnetic radiation existed only as discrete multiples of its frequency times a small value. Known as Planck's constant, the value is expressed as ergs, or energy time. Since frequency is infinitely variable, the actual energy value is also infinitely variable. The actual energy amount depends only upon the frequency. Strangely absent is the electromagnetic amplitude of he E and B fields. Since amplitude is not part of the equations, the amplitude of the E and B fields must be constant. This constant amplitude of the E and B fields must be a fundamental constant property of space. It is the fundamental cause of the quantum nature of light.

# Cold Fusion Update and Yes, It Is Real

Anyone willing to spend a few minutes at research can now prove to themselves that the cold fusion process is real. Many experiments such as the George Ohsawa Steel experiment can be carried out by anyone. They work every time and produce the same results. Although governments around the world and academia around the world are still doing everything they can to prevent it, cold fusion has arrived and is doing well.

Contrary to what many may think, cold fusion did not suddenly appear on the scene. It has wormed its way into the open through hysterical and deadly opposition from academia and established institutions. Governments around the world still oppose it even though it will solve much of the world's energy problems. Opposition comes from establishments that will suffer from cheap energy.

Several hundred years ago, farmers noticed that germinating seeds transmuted certain elements into other elements. Doctor Louis Kervran published, "Biological Transmutation" in which he described several such processes. So, cold fusion is not a new thing. Biological processes have used it forever. Humans transmute nitrogen into carbon and oxygen to form carbohydrates that add to their nutrition.

Doctor Irving Langmuir invented a welding torch in the early nineteen twenties that became known as the atomic torch. Hydrogen squirted through an electric arc produced temperatures close to four thousand degrees. This was one of the first methods that could produce temperatures hot enough to weld tungsten.

# Nature's Natural Facts

by
Vernon Brown
An Alternative To The Standard Model

Space

Space is flat in the classic sense and extends forever outward throughout the empty void. It has no end. It does not expand, stretch, or distort in any sense. It is simply empty nothingness. This concept not only predicts but demands all observed phenomena including relativity and all the forces of nature.

Time

Time plods on from past to future at a constant rate. It does not distort or change its rate of progress in response to the movement of objects. Objects experience time as a count of repetitions of patterns in atoms that comprise the objects. The repetition rate of patterns in atoms slow with movement because the most elemental constituent of all physical reality must always move at the invariant speed of light relative to a special inertial frame of reference. Objects in motion thus experience time as moving slower than objects at rest because their most elemental constituents must move through a greater distance to complete their patterns. All of nature consists of this most elemental constituent. This causes all of the observed spatial distortion of objects in motion.

Special Inertial Frame

All of nature exists in the inertial frame of reference that is here and now. All movement in this inertial frame is relative to a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. This special inertial frame is observable as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is black-body radiation that represents the temperature of space debris. The Milky Way Galaxy and all the neighboring galaxies move through the background toward the constellation Leo at the rate of about five hundred miles per second.

Gravity

The empty space has two properties that determine the speed of light. These two properties represent the ability of empty space to transport electric and magnetic activity. Electric and magnetic activity affect the two properties such that the presence of electric and magnetic activity impede additional activity by slowing the rate of change of electric and magnetic amplitude. This negative feedback property provides gravitational phenomena by restricting the speed of light in areas of massive activity. Massive objects comprised solely of electromagnetic activity provide islands of massive electromagnetic activity and affect the speed of light in close proximity to them. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised solely of electromagnetic patterns, massive objects must migrate toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. This electromagnetic activity provides all gravitational phenomena.

Red Shift

All electromagnetic activity in the universe connects to all other electromagnetic activity in the universe by instantaneous coupling of charge. When this gravitational phenomena causes a change in momentum of any object in space, conservation demands an exchange of energy. This exchange occurs instantaneously via frequency shift in electromagnetic activity. The frequency of photons in space must change to accommodate this. Free photons moving through space produce gravity and experience a gradual frequency shift toward the red end of the spectrum as the gravity they provide causes momentum change in other space entities.

Red Shift Amount

The amount of red shift is generally time dependent but may differ depending upon the photon's path through space. Paths that traverse very energetic regions may red shift differently than paths that traverse less energetic regions. Each galaxy produces very energetic beams that spew out perpendicular to the galactic plane. Photons that pass through these beams may shift frequency more than photons that do not pass through the beams.

Planck's Constant

Photon frequency may vary smoothly from almost zero to almost infinity but the electric and magnetic field amplitude exist as sine waves that always peak at a finite constant maximum amplitude. This finite constant maximum amplitude provides the quantum nature of electromagnetic energy. The electric and magnetic fields of all electromagnetic activity contain points that peak at this amplitude. Spatially extended fields drive these points through space at the constant speed of light.

Uncertainty

The fields exist as crossed planes and extend instantly outward forever away from the points. Since the area of a plane increases as the square of distance, force field amplitude decreases as the square of distance. Changing amplitude throughout the fields couple instantly to drive the points through space. Fields drive the points but interaction only happens near the points. When interaction does happen, phase dynamics between interacting entities determine the exact location of the interaction. This provides the observed uncertainty since these dynamics can never be known.

Electric Charge

Electromagnetic fields may interfere with each other to deflect their progress through space. This deflection may occur such that the electric plane occupies the radius of the bent path. When the electric plane occupies that radius the negative and positive electric fields can not be symmetrical. Which ever field occupies the outside of the bend dominates to produce an electric charge that originates at the radius of the bend. The charge amplitude relates to the bend radius such that the smaller the bend radius the greater the charge amplitude.

Pair Production

The electric charge at the bend radius of a photon path repels itself to produce positive feedback that bends the path more in the same direction. At one certain frequency, complete stable patterns may resonate to form an electron and a positron. The stability of the pattern comes from positive feedback and resonance. The dual nature of pair production comes from the necessity for equal interference energies. Electrons and positrons thus formed exist only as their electric and magnetic field structures.

Electron Structure

A one wavelength loop completes the most simple pattern. The pattern spins at the speed of light in the primary direction and spins in a secondary flat-wise direction to form a sphere. The electric charge originates at the circumference of the pattern. It forms a structure such that one polarity faces toward the outside and the opposite polarity faces toward the inside.

Protons and Neutrons

More massive electron-like structures may form at frequencies greater than that of the electron. Four of these may be stable when arranged in sandwiched shells such that each subsequent shell mass and electric charge is the square of that of the next shell out. Each of these shells exist only as electromagnetic activity that exists at a circumference equal to the wave length of the equivalent energy of the shell's mass. Measurements of particle size for the proton and neutron were not correct because researchers used probe energy that was too high. They detected only the innermost shell. The correct shell sizes become detectable at probe energies less than two hundred mev.

Square of the Shells

The Square of the Shells rule sets the mass and charge value of the electron as unity and calculates the mass and charge value of shells that comprise protons and neutrons. Shell one, the neutron's outer shell, must contain the mass, energy, and charge difference between a proton and a neutron. When this shell one mass and charge value is set to 2.549920405 electron masses and electron charges, the rule works to provide the masses and charge values of all subsequent shells.

Constancy of Charge

Although the force of the electric field at the circumference of the neutron is more than twice that of an electron, it measures exactly one electron force when sensed at the larger radius of the electron. This is because the force diminishes as the square of distance away from the source and the electron size is about five times the size of the neutron's outer shell.

Atomic Structure

This leads to a major realization about how electrons interact with atomic nuclei. Electrons can not simply orbit oppositely charged nuclei because charge interaction would slow the electron and drive it into the nuclei. With this model, charge interaction from atomic nuclei snaps the larger electron onto the nuclei so that the electron engulfs the nuclei. The electron is held in place by electric charge equilibrium. The outward facing positive charge of the proton's outer shell faces off against the inward facing positive charge of the electron's only shell.

Strong Force

Atomic nuclei follow this same pattern. Sandwiched shells each face off against like charges and find equilibrium with smaller, more massive, inner shells. Inner shells dominate and hold the outer shells in place. Elements with more than one nucleus may form when the two most inner shells of a proton punch through the outer shells of another proton. The inner shells then find equilibrium between their outer facing negative charge and the inner facing negative charge of the proton's outer shell.

Strong force dynamics.

There is a strange dynamic to the strong nuclear forces that bind atomic nuclei together. The force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear altogether. The model presented here solves the mystery of that strange dynamic. Trapped inside the proton's outer shell, the inner shells must pass through like charges to separate. After the inside shells pass through the outer, the forces, although still there, are not sensed as anything other than the normal electric proton charge.

# Gravity's Secrets

Feedback systems are common in electronics. We obtain feedback by feeding a portion of the output of a system back to the input. Positive feedback operates to enhance a process and negative feedback operates to oppose a process. We use these systems to our advantage in computers and many other things. Just recently we noticed that there is a negative feedback system at work in the force of gravity.

Sir Isaac Newton described gravity for us in the mid sixteen hundreds and Einstein modified Newton's version with General Relativity in the early nineteen hundreds. Hidden in Einstein's General Relativity, the mechanism of negative feedback goes unnoticed. The Lorentz version of relativity phenomena also contains the mechanism and it is unnoticed there as well. Gravity affects the passage of time and the speed of light in a negative way.

Sir Author Eddington published a paper in 1920 that described gravity as refraction of light. He used an analogy of a runner going through a concentric field of hurdles to show that the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Recently Doctor Albrecht Giese also showed that gravity derives from the refraction of light and went on to show that the path of light must bend twice as much as the path of a material object in a gravitational field. Doctor Giese shows the cause and provides the equations to calculate the paths of both.

Negative feedback comes about as the two constants that determine the speed of light are modified by the presence of gravity. So gravity modifies constants that determine the speed of light and the speed of light determines the amount of gravity. Negative feedback operates to limit the force of gravity. Taken to the extreme as in a gravitational singularity, the limitation would be infinite.

We can look at this another way. Gravity slows an objects experience of time. Time is a factor in acceleration. We calculate acceleration by multiplying force and time. Slow time means less acceleration. So we prove by a second method that gravity provides negative feedback for gravity.

# Universe In Tweets

By
Vernon Brown
Stand Alone Version

Now that we can show with mathematical certainty that this universe is comprised solely of electromagnetic phenomena, it seems natural that we should provide a version that can be tweeted on twitter. Below are tweet sized sentences that explain the main facts of the recent realizations.

The mathematical certainty comes from the fact that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light via electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. The gold buttons link to detailed explanations.

Relativity:
Relativity phenomena comes naturally in flat space-time and a universe that consists solely of electric and magnetic change.

Gravity:
Electric and magnetic change impede additional change to provide gravity. So gravity impedes gravity.

Matter:
Patterns of electric and magnetic change provide mass.

Proton:
Three patterns of electric and magnetic change clump together to provide protons.

Neutron:
Four patterns of electric and magnetic change clump together to provide neutrons.

Strong Force:
Proton patterns trapped inside others provide the strong force.

Dynamics:
Protons trapped inside others break out to provide strong force dynamics.

Red Shift
Photons use energy to provide gravity and shift toward the red as a result.

# Alternative Universe

by
Vernon Brown

We can describe a universe so alien from our own that no established theory that we accept today can be real. Yet try as we might, we can devise no test that can distinguish this hypothetical universe from the universe that we sense around us. The notion has been around for about two hundred years and seems to have originated before the time of Maxwell. Physicists of the early twentieth century used the main postulate of the hypothesis to explain relativity phenomena. Despite all efforts to prove the notion false, it remains the only philosophically sound hypothesis that shows clear cause and effect for all natural phenomena that we know about.

Since its inception, this hypothesis has been ridiculed by main stream media and institutions of higher learning. A London newspaper in the 1800's published a cartoon depicting a prominent physicist attempting to unify the forces of nature by use of the hypothesis. This may be a clue that the major premise of the hypothesis originated with Michael Faraday. No matter who originated the notion, it stubbornly resists falsification even though most established theory can not possibly be real if the hypothesis is real. There is much evidence that the hypothesis is real. There is no evidence that it is not real. Google: TheEvidence.html Michael Faraday was not successful in his attempt to unify the forces but Professor Willis Thompson described a self-consistent unification somewhat later.

The major premise that we suspect originated with Faraday is: The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Maxwell produced equations that satisfied all of Faraday's experimental results. The equations could be solved for the speed of light with no consideration given for the speed of the inertial system that contained the light. This ended any reasonable notion that material things might consist of anything other than electromagnetic fields. Unreasonable notions of that early period do continue to flourish and still command the main body of established theory.

In the hypothesis, space-time is flat in the classic sense, and the speed of light is constant relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. Matter that is held together by a light-like substance must distort with movement because of the constant speed of light. Not only the shape of matter but the time experience of matter must distort. All physical reality is related to the speed of light because all physical reality is made of light. Physicists in the time of Lorentz pondered that concept and produced a set of equations that we know as the Lorentz transformations. Back then, they could not test the equations by experiment. Now we can test them. The equations hold true. Einstein used them in his theory of relativity.

Time dilation seems to be the part of relativity phenomena that is most difficult for people to grasp. It is very simple, however. In order to understand how it works we must remember that it is local time and not time in general that experiences distortion. Local time is the time experienced by the moving object. The time experience of any object is the count of repetitions of patterns within the object. Stop and think so you know this is true. Our time standard is a count of the vibration repeats of the Cesium atom. Patterns repeat more slowly relative to the fixed inertial frame in space because components that repeat in the patterns must move through a greater distance when the containing object is moving. The local time of the moving object is thus slowed by movement. Time dilation is nothing more than that.

Relativity phenomena provides the most direct evidence that all of nature consists solely of electric and magnetic activity. There is no other reasonable way to show cause for relativity. All things change shape and experience time differently when in motion. We can show cause for the phenomena when we consider that all motion must be relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. The reality of relativity departs from the theory of relativity in that reality demands a fixed inertial frame at rest in space.

Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts reciprocity for observers viewing reciprocal movement. This gives rise to the famous Twins Paradox. Google: Twins Paradox. In the paradox, each twin sees the other experience time dilation but sees no time dilation for themselves. Each should then see the other as being older than himself when the twins are brought back together. Advocates for Einstein's version of relativity explain that one of the twins may experience more acceleration than the other. This is true, however, even though one twin experienced more acceleration than the other, acceleration does not matter in Einstein's theory. Only speed matters.

This does not happen with the Lorentz version of relativity supported here. Although the actual measurements are almost the same, there is a slight difference. Each twin experiences time dilation relative to an inertial reference frame that is at rest in space. Age differences then calculate correctly. The oldest twin moved the greatest distance relative to the fixed reference frame. This avoids the paradox and conforms to the Lorentz version of relativity. Google: Lorentz Ether Theory.

In actual practice we do use a special inertial frame to measure the motion of the Milky Way Galaxy through space. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation occupies an inertial frame that seems to be the same throughout the universe. All the nearby galaxies move through the CMBR toward the constellation Leo at a rate of about five hundred miles per second. Although institutions of learning teach against the fact, natural intuition has already correctly placed the CMBR as the special inertial frame that is at rest in space.

The discovery of quantum phenomena by Max Planck in 1900 sparked a revolution in physics that gave birth to quantum theory. Quantum theory was coupled with statistical probability and the uncertainty principle to describe a version of nature that was accepted by academia and is still taught as the greatest advancement in physics to date. Despite its success, the theory remains philosophically unsound at its foundation. It does not attempt to answer the questions, "how come the quantum, how come gravity, how come uncertainty, and how come matter."

There is a simple explanation for each of those. First, all quantum phenomena develops from the fact that the electric and magnetic amplitude of the E and B fields of photons are constants. We know this because the amplitude of the E and B fields are not part of the equation for photon action. (Planck's Constant.) If that amplitude were variable, it would necessarily be part of the equation. It is not there. Only the rate of change in amplitude expressed as frequency is there. It makes sense that the saturation amplitude of the E and B fields of photons is the maximum electric and magnetic amplitude that space can support. That is how come the quantum.

How come uncertainty? Statistical probability is a mathematical fact. It has its own set of well established laws and standards. We can apply those laws and standards to all of nature and arrive at a certain understanding of the general process of natural events. But, no matter the amount of data applied, it is composed of individual events each of which behaves in accord with its own set of natural laws.

When it approaches a target, an individual photon will interact with electrons in the target. Individual electrons in the target interact with an approaching photon depending upon phase relationships. The photon will bypass electrons that have an unfavorable phase to interact with electrons with a favorable phase relationship. That is the simplistic explanation of why we can never predict the exact position of photon interaction with a target. That is how come uncertainty.

Energy becomes matter when enough of it is confined in a local area. Pair creation of an electron and positron happens when a local concentration of energy exceeds the equivalent energy of their mass. All components of atomic nuclei are routinely created in electron-positron collision experiments. Electrons and positrons collide and out of the collisions come all sub-atomic particles. Observed in the laboratory, this process must also happen in space.

The Photon Theory of Matter advances the concept in relation to recent findings about nature. All of the new ideas derive from similar notions held by renowned physicists of the past and of the present. The most controversial idea seems to be that photons create gravity. This should not be controversial. It forms the backbone of established mainstream theory. It is a major component of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Photon theory advances this notion only slightly by stating that photons and only photons create and respond to gravity. We show the mechanism by which that happens.

According to the photon theory of matter, a residual electric field results from a bend in the path of photons. The field amplitude is greatest at, and inversely proportional to, the radius of the bend. The smaller the bend radius, the greater the charge sensed at that radius. Because sensed charge amplitude decreases as the square of distance from the charge source, sensed charge amplitude of a single bend is a constant value. The value is always equal to an electron's charge when sensed at a distance away that is greater than an electron's radius.

The Photon Theory of Matter departs from traditional particle sizes. Traditional measurements for particle size use a flawed technique. Probe energy is much too great to sense the subtle electromagnetic fields that mark the outer particle boundaries. These particle boundaries can be calculated. They exist at a circumference equal to one wavelength of the equivalent energy of the particles. Probes of energy levels designed to detect field reversal structures where the electron's outer negative charge abruptly changes to its inner positive charge will successfully measure the correct size for the electron.

Like charges repel. So the charge created by the bend in the path of a photon acts upon itself to bend the path more in the same direction. This action is termed, positive feedback. Positive feedback coupled with resonance can trap a photon in a stable pattern to produce an electron and a positron. While in this pattern, the photon retains all its properties including the production of, and response to, gravity. The inherent frequency stability of the photon shows up as inertia in the matter.

Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts the gravitational behavior of objects in our solar system with great success. But when applied on the galactic scale, something is wrong. Stars move around the galactic center faster than they should. In order to salvage GR theory, we need a new form of matter. Dark Matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for this discrepancy. Fritz Zwicky used the concept in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Google: Dark Matter.

Photon theory does not rely upon exotic states of matter including dark matter or dark energy or anything else that is not observed. Galaxies operate as the recycling behemoths of the universe. They convert matter to energy in stars and stars to energy in a super-massive ionic soup at galactic centers. Radiation and ionic debris spew out to form a halo around galaxies. This halo provides all the additional gravity needed to explain galactic rotation speeds.

Einstein's General Relativity theory demands that gravity attract light. Conversely, General Relativity also demands that light create gravity. Einstein was not alone and maybe not even the originator of the notion that light creates gravity. Sir Author Eddington showed a mechanism by which light must create gravity in his paper of 1920. Google is your friend: Eddington 1920.

No matter the theory we use, there can be no doubt that photons do create gravity. We also know that any gravitational source must provide energy to change the momentum of any object in space. Gravity provided by photons in space changes the momentum of objects in space. Photons in space must provide energy to change the momentum of objects in space. Experiments show that this does happen. This loss of energy by photons in space shows up as a red shift in the spectrum of energy in space. The energy loss is directly proportional to time just as we expect.

Through the ages there has never been a shortage of speculation about the mechanism of gravity. Among the speculation, Sir Author Eddington provided a version that is mathematically certain provided only that Maxwell's equations hold true. Published in his 1920 paper, Eddington ascribed refraction of light as the mechanism that produces gravity.

Eddington knew that the two constants of space, electric permittivity, and magnetic permeability, determine the speed of light. Those two properties are modified by the presence of electric and magnetic activity such that more activity increases the effect. The result is that the speed of light is slower where electric and magnetic activity is greater. The path of light must bend toward the direction where the speed of light is slower.

Established theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes most of the mass of matter. Photon theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes all of the mass of matter. Given that electromagnetic activity creates gravity, what else can there be that creates gravity? Equations that convert mass to its energy equivalent demand that all of the mass convert. There is not something left over that might produce gravity. The released energy in such a conversion continues to create gravity. Gravity is conserved when mass becomes energy.

The force of gravity diminishes as the inverse square of distance. This is a clue that it exists as planes like the fields of electric and magnetic force. The area of a circular plane increases as the square of its radius. The area of a sphere increases as the cube of its radius. If gravity propagated as a spherical force, it should diminish as the inverse cube of distance. Since it exists as multiple plainer forces, it diminishes as we measure, as the inverse square of distance.

There is another powerful similarity between gravity and electromagnetic forces. They seem to exist instantly in that they do not suffer aberration. Although a photon moves through space at the constant speed of light, the spatially extended field structure does not seem to be swept back but moves right along intact. If the planes of force propagated at the speed of light, they would trail behind and so be swept back from the leading point of the photon.

# Space and Time

by
Vernon Brown
July 8, 2013

Physicists of the early twentieth century concluded that, "the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. The notion reasonably explains the cause of all relativity phenomena. Physicists will eventually see that Quantum Theory is flawed at its philosophical foundation just as many of its original founders did. A growing number of physicists have returned to this alternate view of nature's reality and developed new insights into it. The following paragraphs outline some of the new insights.

Flat space-time and the invariant speed of light operate in a special fixed inertial frame to provide relativity phenomena. This special inertial frame exists as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Radiated starlight determines the temperature of the CMBR. With this construct, the physical laws of nature forbid the Big Bang and Black Hole scenarios. Behold, the mechanism of relativity as explained by Doctor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and many others in the early 1900's.

The presence of electric and magnetic charge determines the impedance of space. This impedance directly determines the propagation speed of electromagnetic activity. The path of electromagnetic activity must bend toward the direction of greater impedance. Electromagnetic activity in matter pull the matter toward greater impedance. Behold, the mechanism of gravity as explained by Sir Author Eddington in 1920.

Electromagnetic activity tends to trap itself in patterns of a size related to its wavelength by the mechanism of positive feedback and resonance. One certain frequency forms a stable pattern by itself to produce an electron or a positron. These two exist only at the circumference of their patterns. Since their wavelength is the greatest, the size of their patterns is the largest of all the elementary particles.

Electromagnetic activity traps itself in many patterns that exist for a short time and decay back into electromagnetic activity. Four of these may be stable in combination with each other. A proton exists as a sandwiched shell structure of three of these. A neutron exists as four shells. The outer shell of the neutron contains the mass-energy difference between that of a neutron and a proton.

The square of the mass and charge value of the neutron's outer shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's outer shell. The square of the mass and charge value of the proton's outer shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's middle shell. The square of the mass and charge value of the proton's middle shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's third and final shell.

The sum of the masses of all the shells produce the mass value of the neutron. The sum of the masses of the inner three shells produce the mass value of the proton. The sum of the charge values of two of the proton's middle shells and two of its outer shells produce the strong nuclear force.

Charge amplitude decreases as the square of distance. The greater charge amplitudes of the inner shells measure one electron charge when sensed at the greater radius of the electron.

# Message From Nick

I stumbled on your theory by trying to find an answer to the question, 'what is the max/min value of the electric field of a photon?' All I was able to calculate was the field intensity at a distance from a source emitting photons in all directions. This was just a measurement of the flux of photons/energy through a surface, but that did not explain what values the E (and B) field could reach for a single photon oscillating in free space. Furthermore, I agree wholeheartedly with your postulate that all things in the universe reduce to light and the EM field.

Flux density of the E and B field of a photon has not been determined as far as I know. Robert Kemp attempted it in his, Quantization of the EM Change paper. Here are some things we suspect about the E and B values of photons.

The maximum E and B values of the photon field occur at two points in each photon represented by T2 and T4 in the schematic image to the left.

They are fundamental constants of nature related to Planck's constant.

They are the fundamental cause of Planck's constant and quantum phenomena.

The points are at the maximum possible value of the E and B field strength that space can support.

Question1:

How you determined the outer/inner charge of each shell? I believe, going from the innermost shell to the outermost (aside: I also think they should be numbered this way), that you have them going as follows: (-)+ (+)- (-)+ (+)- [note: the inner charge of each shell is in parenthesis ()] Initially, I thought that was unstable, but then I realized this might give rise to the zero point energy, or, in other words, the constant jiggle that each atom always experiences. Furthermore, it seems that the alternating charge ratio is what initially attracts each shell together. Combine with pressure or high density, the separate shells become concentric. Did you choose this charge order, or did you arrive at it mathematically?

The charge order of the shells is determined by the positive charge of the proton. That begins the sequence for three shells.

Question 2:
In your theory, what is the difference between a neutron and a hydrogen atom? I see from this image that the electron radius is much larger than the 4th (outermost) shell of the neutron. But why is this? Why can't the outermost neutron shell take various values based on energy like the electron in the hydrogen atom?

I suspect that a positive ion has a greater propensity to become a hydrogen atom than a neutron because the electron is stable and a neutron's outer shell is not. A positive ion is not likely to encounter a neutron size shell in empty space.

Question 3:
Please tell me if I am understanding a proton's structure correctly. I do not think I quite grasped the fact that all 3 shells in the proton are orbiting in a different direction until I saw this very confusing picture Assuming your theory is correct (which is how much of my thought experiments begin lately), there are 3 photons trapped in resonant loops. For argument sake, assume they orbit on the specific planes I state. The innermost shell, which has the smallest radius, highest energy, and accounting for 97.3% of the mass, rotates in the xy plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the z-axis. The middle shell, accounting for 2.3% of the mass, orbits in the yz plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the x direction. Finally, the protons outermost shell, contributing a mere 0.35% of the mass, is a photon orbiting in the xz plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the y direction. Do I have this correct? Or is my understanding flawed. Does the orbit of the one shell determine the orbit of the next closest shell?

Hold the thought of the shell that contributes only 0.35% of the proton's mass. Without that shell the proton would be unstable and would release all its energy as gamma radiation.

I suspect that the proton has a definite structure based upon the dynamics of the fields but I am just guessing about what that structure is. It should arrange itself so that the magnetic lines of force are complete between shells like the image to the left that I use as my avatar. So, yes, I suspect that the orbit of each shell interlocks with the fields of the next shell. Also, over the years I have come to suspect that the shells occupy the same plane so that the magnetic field lines can complete. The image above was from my early conjecture.

Question 4:
What is the charge of each shell, and does each subsequent shell shield the charges from all inner shells to the outside world? If so, how does this couple with the fact that each shell is orbiting along a different plane? Before I realized that each shell is orbiting on a different plane, conceptually, it made sense that each shell had a charge that was cancelled by the next shell. But since they are on different planes, can you explain how this works? Given the frequency/wavelength of the photon, and the radius of orbit (which is of course related), how can I find the surface charge? I see that you reference the surface charge of each shell based on the mass and your square-of-shells data But I do not see how I can calculate surface charge from that. In other words, for the proton, it is known it has a charge of +1.6022E-19 C. Is this value, always measured from a radius greater than the outermost shell, the value of the outermost shell, or the value of the sum of the 3 shells?

I agree with you that it makes more sense that the shells occupy the same plane. The charge value in the chart is the value at the radius of the shell. The charge value of each shell is the charge value of an electron when sensed from any distance greater than an electron's radius. This is because sensed charge value decreases as the square of distance.

Furthermore, when you calculate the strong force by summing the contributions from the middle and outer proton shells for 2 protons (6.5+42.2+6.5+42.2=97.558), this confuses me because you should not experience the full force of the shell if it is penetrated, and the reverse side of the shell's charge must also contribute. I guess this is just a 1st order approximation.

I suspect that each shell experiences the force of the side of the shell next closest. The force would be experienced as points of maximum amplitude passed each other in the dynamics of the bind. There is room for lots of work in this area. I haven't done much with the dynamics except to notice the strange dynamic that force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear.

What is the nature of the orbit of the neutron's outer shell? If the 3 shells of the proton occupy the xy, yz, and xz planes, what does that leave for the outer shell?

I suspect that the neutron occupies the same plane with the other shells and spins contrary to the outer shell of the proton so that magnetic lines of force are complete.

Question 6:
What is the justification for the square-of-shells rule, other than 'it works'? In other words, what kind of physics principles or formulas would lead to such a rule? Another way to write it is s^2+s^4+s^8, where s=2.549920405. Perhaps this is some kind of multi-pole expansion or something. I was just wondering/hoping you had some justification for it.

I came up with the shells rule while contemplating the masses of sandwiched shells. I knew that the relationship between shell masses would necessarily be exponential in order to equate to proton and neutron mass. The first thing I tried was to start with the neutron's outer shell and square each subsequent shell.

Question 7:
If the electron is this fixed value and energy, and each shell is also fixed, how do the different energy levels of a hydrogen atom (or any atom really) fit into your theory? When a hydrogen atom is 1 quantum level above the ground state (1st excited state), what has happened? Has the shell structure of the proton changed? Has the radius of the electron changed? Where/how is the excess energy stored prior to it being released as a photon?

I have thought a lot about the dynamics of the energy levels of atoms but have not arrived at conclusions I am satisfied with. There are all kinds of possibilities. Several others who agree with the primary concept that all of nature is comprised of EM fields alone hold that the structure is much more complicated than I present.

# Mathematical Certainty

by
Vernon Brown

We can show with mathematical certainty that this universe consists of electric and magnetic activity alone provided only that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light. His equations provide several solutions including one that uses only the electric and magnetic constants. The gold button links to a Wikki link about impedance of free space. Notice the symbols are modified by sub zero. The sub zero means absent electric and magnetic charge.

According to Maxwell the electric and magnetic constants of space determine the impedance of space. The constants must be adjusted for the presence of charge such that the presence of electric and magnetic charge increases impedance. The impedance of a local area of space determines the speed of light through that area. The path of light must bend toward greater impedance just as a car must swerve toward the side that hits an impeding puddle of water.

The gold bar on the left links to a web page where Dr. Albrecht Giese shows how objects whose mass derives mostly from electromagnetic activity, as in quantum theory, must gravitate toward concentrations of electromagnetic activity. The gold bar on the right links to our gravity page where we show that objects whose mass derives completely from electromagnetic activity must gravitate toward increased electromagnetic activity.

Sir Author Eddington realized that refraction of light must contribute as a source of gravity. Given that Maxwell got the equations right, this is a mathematical certainty. The gold bar links to an excerpt from Eddington's 1920 publication where he describes how refraction must contribute to gravity.

Physicists of the past provided us with two different theories of relativity. The Einstein version assumes variable space-time as the cause of relativity phenomena. The Lorentz version assumes variable matter and a special inertial frame of reference. Both use the Lorentz transformations to describe distortions in space and time as sensed between different inertial frames of reference.

The Lorentz version of relativity phenomena easily agrees with the electromagnetic contribution to gravity described above. The Einstein version requires much mathematical finagling but can agree. Philosophy suggests that the Lorentz version is probably the correct one.

Institutions of education accept Einstein's account of relativity over the Lorentz account. However, our GPS system must be adjusted for relativity phenomena using a special inertial frame of reference. For references search the terms GPS relativity adjustment.

The Lorentz version avoids problems like the twin paradox that Einstein's version can not easily solve. When we accept the Lorentz version we arrive at the notion that physicists realized back then. At the turn of the twentieth century, most physicists realized that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Another way of saying that is: All of nature behaves exactly as if all of nature is made of light.

If we accept the notion of conservation of energy, we see that when gravity causes a change of momentum, the gravity source must lose energy. We then expect that photons in space must lose energy as things in space change momentum in response to the gravity they create.

We observe in space an inertial frame of reference that is observable throughout the universe. Because it is observable throughout we can call it a special frame. We observe that our Milky Way galaxy and all nearby galaxies move through this special frame at the rate of about five hundred miles per second toward the constellation Leo.

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation consists of a very narrow range of frequencies that we identify as Black Body radiation. The frequency of Black Body radiation is determined by the temperature of the entity emitting it. It seems to be the average temperature of the universe.

Physicists have estimated this temperature for centuries. Eddington published his estimates in 1926. He considered two sources that would contribute. One was starlight from our local galaxy and the other was galactic light to warm intergalactic space. His estimates were very close to the measured temperature of the CMBR.

We have shown how Maxwell's equations demand that photons create gravity. We found that Eddington showed how the equations of Maxwell demanded that photons create gravity. We showed that the Lorentz version explains all relativity phenomena in flat space-time and a universe made of light. All these facts lead to the conclusion that we live in the electromagnetic universe.

# Universe In Tweets

Now that we can show with mathematical certainty that this universe is comprised solely of electromagnetic phenomena, it seems natural that we should provide a version that can be tweeted on twitter. Below are tweet sized sentences that explain the main facts of the recent realizations.

The mathematical certainty comes from the fact that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light via electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. The gold buttons link to detailed explanations.

Relativity:
Flat space-time in the classic sense provides relativity phenomena in a universe made of light.

Gravity:
Light path bends toward greater impedance to provide gravity in a universe made of light.

Matter:
Positive feedback and resonance trap photons in shell patterns to provide matter in a universe made of light.

Proton:
Three shells form sandwich structures to provide protons in a universe made of light.

Neutron:
Four shells form sandwich structures to provide neutrons in a universe made of light.

Strong Force:
Charge on inside proton shells provides the strong force in a universe made of light.

Dynamics:
Outer shells trap inner shells inside to provide strong force dynamics in a universe made of light.

Red Shift
Photonic gravity changes momentum of space entities to provide red shift of photons in a universe made of light.

# Short Microwave Bursts

Microwave Bursts that last only a few seconds were used to measure the arrival times of photons. One purpose was to determine whether shorter wavelength photons arrived at the same time as longer wavelength photons. Measurements showed that they arrived at the same time. This discredited the argument that 1a Super Nova event duration was spread out in time by discriminate delay of short and long wavelength photons.

It is possible that the burst came from a beam that swept past the receiver. This would negate the result because the measured photons would not necessarily have departed the source at the same time.

# Red Shift

Arithmetic is a wonderful thing. With it we can logically deduce things we can be certain about. We can know with certainty that one and one is two. The arithmetic tells us so. We do not doubt it.

Only slightly more complicated is the fact that gravity is an electromagnetic phenomena as shown in the gold-bar-linked paper. This is a mathematical certainty given that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light.

Once we accept the paper's premise that gravity is a simple process of refraction of light, we can find the cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.

As shown in the gold-bar link, when a force applied to any entity causes that entity to change momentum, work is done. Work requires energy. Energy is conserved. When gravity from a photon causes any entity to change momentum, that photon must give up energy. A photon gives up energy by shifting its wavelength toward the red end of the spectrum.

So that wonderful tool, arithmetic, gives us the fundamental cause of gravity and the fundamental cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.

# Tweet-able Universe

Since 1986 I have argued against the notion that nature's forces are conveyed by particle exchange. Although that notion is accepted by all institutions of higher learning, there has been no experimental evidence that it is real. All experimental evidence supports the opposing notion that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Stated another way, all experimental evidence still supports the notion that everything is made of light.

There is a huge problem with that second notion. A universe so comprised is very restrictive. Most things we can imagine are not possible. This includes just about every established theory. What is possible, however, is everything we can see, feel, and measure. As indicated in the gold-bar-linked paper, relativity phenomena, gravity, and the nuclear forces are predicted and demanded in a universe comprised solely of light.

Physicists are aware of this. The real importance of the Large Hadron Collider was to discover evidence that supports the Standard Model of Quantum Theory and so discredit the idea that everything is made of light. So far all evidence from the LHC supports the Photonic Universe.

A universe made of light demands flat space-time in order to predict relativity phenomena and gravity. Classic flat space-time does not stretch. Some version of Tired Light must cause photons to lose energy as they age. We have a version that does just that.

Contrary to popular belief, it is the photon that creates and responds to gravity. In the paper linked by the gold bar Dr. Albrecht Giese shows that it is a mathematical certainty that gravity is an electromagnetic phenomena. Although Dr.Giese has not yet abandoned quantum theory, he has realized that all material things must have as their most elemental constituent particles without mass that move at the invariant speed of light.

The photon we describe fits the requirements of the most elemental constituent that Dr. Giese needs. Our photon is comprised of two points of saturated electric and magnetic amplitude that always moves through space at the invariant speed of light. When trapped in a pattern to form an electron, the two points provide the spin one half characteristic that is observed.

When a force changes the momentum of any object, work is done. Energy is exchanged where one entity loses energy and another entity gains energy. Photons create gravity. Gravity changes the momentum of massive objects. Photons must give up energy when the gravity created by them changes the momentum of an object. As a result Photons must loose energy as they age.

The intent of this paper was to begin a description of the universe comprised of twiter tweet sized paragraphs. Although somewhat incomplte, the paragraph below is one of the tweets.

Super Massive Objects eat matter and radiate beams perpendicular to spin plane. Beams congeal. Cycle repeats forever.

# Faster Than Light Communication

In the universe we describe here, spatially extended fields drive points of electric and magnetic saturation through space at the speed of light. The fields look like waves. The points look like particles. This gives us the classic photon of the twentieth century.

Amplitude change at any place in the extended fields affects the trajectory of the points. This means that communication about the amplitude change in the extended fields reaches the points faster than the speed of the points. Experimental tests with entangled photons suggest that this communication may be instantaneous.

Physicists speculate that it is not possible to convey information faster than light speed. However, we see here an example of information about amplitude change in photon fields reaching photon points faster than light speed. The speculation must not be what is real.

In the web page linked by the left gold button, Dr. Albrecht Giese proves beyond doubt that gravity is an electromagnetic process. The spatially extended fields of electric and magnetic change affect the impedance of space. The path of light bends toward greater impedance just as the path of a car swerves toward an impeding puddle of water. All established theories about the construct of matter have it comprised mostly of electric and magnetic activity. So comprised, matter must gravitate.

If we could find some way to observe minute vibrations in the saturated points of photons, we might could use that to convey information. We can not observe loose photons, but we can observe photons trapped in patterns. An electron is such an entity.

We can speculate that there may be some way to observe the minute vibrations of electrons that respond to entangled partners and so speed communications. That is pure speculation, but it is the kind of speculation that might lead to a great discovery. We might find a new form of communication used by other inhabitants of the universe.

# Reality Demands A Photonic Universe

The final irreducible constituent of all physical realty must be the electromagnetic field. Relativity phenomena then develops naturally. The Lorentz transformations apply to show how matter and even time itself must distort with movement. All of physical reality is related to the speed of light in just a certain way because all of physical reality is made of light.

There must be a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. This is a necessity that allows relativity phenomena to develop naturally. There is such a frame of reference that we can detect. It is the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. So far as anyone can determine it is the same throughout the universe.

The presence of electric and magnetic activity in an area impedes additional electric and magnetic activity. This impedance of space was known before the turn of the twentieth century. Maxwell showed that two properties of space contributed to the impedance of space and determined the speed of light as in the equation to the left.

The speed of light is slower in a field of gravity. That being so, then the impedance of space must be greater toward massive objects. That alone must produce the distortion we notice when light passes massive objects. There is no need for space to warp.

The path of light bends toward greater impedance just as the path of a car swerves toward an obstructing puddle. Matter, comprised of electric and magnetic activity, spews remnant fields out through space. The electric and magnetic amplitude of the fields diminish as the square of distance. This causes the impedance of space to increase toward massive objects.

Material things that contain electromagnetic activity must gravitate toward massive objects. This is true what ever fundamental theory used. All established theories consider that most of the mass of objects results from electromagnetic activity in the objects. We suspect that all the mass of objects result from that activity. We suspect that because the arithmetic breaks down otherwise.

# Condensed Reality Nature's Universe

I will describe here a basic flat space-time universe that no test yet devised can distinguish from the universe in which we live. Yet, this universe I describe will be so restrictive that it will not permit most established theories to be real. This universe is built from electric and magnetic amplitude change and nothing else. No material thing that does not reduce to electric and magnetic amplitude change can exist in this universe.

Time is a measure of the change in electric and magnetic amplitude. One second worth of time is a certain count of repetitions of a pattern in a cesium atom. In this universe I describe, the most elemental components of atoms must move at the invariant speed of light. The speed of light in this universe is invariant with respect to a special inertial frame, that of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

This universe has existed much as it now exists for a time longer than any measure we might devise. It is a stable churning mass of energy and particles made of that energy. Galaxies gobble up clumps of matter and swirl the clumps toward their centers. At each galactic center a Super Massive Object digests matter and energy to produce bursts of gamma ray energy that spews out perpendicular to the galactic plane.

The Super Massive Objects are not Black Holes. Black Holes can not exist in this universe. The reason Black Holes can not exist is that Gravity is itself electromagnetic radiation. Gravity happens because the impedance of space depends upon the amount of electric and magnetic activity present. This was known in Maxwell's time and is built into his equations. The more activity, the more impedance. The more impedance, the slower the speed of light. The slower the speed of light, the slower time progresses and the path of light must bend toward the slower direction. Comprised of light, material things must gravitate toward the direction that the speed of light is slower. This provides all the things we observe about gravity.

All relativity phenomena comes about because of the restrictive construct of nature. The most elemental components of all material things must always move at the invariant speed of light. So, when the material thing itself moves relative to the special fixed frame that is at rest in space, the material thing must distort to keep the internal patterns in place. The experience of time by the material object must also change because patterns must repeat more slowly. The patterns must repeat more slowly because their innards must move through greater distances to repeat their patterns.

Electric Charge happens when gamma ray photons interfere with each other to such an extent that one wave length cycles get trapped in a resonant pattern. The charge emits from the circumference of the bend in the photon's path. The changing amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields that comprise the photon occupy more area on the outside of the bend than on the inside. The outside area can not be completely canceled by the opposite charge on the inside of the bend. The ratio of the inside charge to the outside charge is related to the fine structure constant. Be the first to put numbers to this relationship and make a name for yourself.

# A Fundamental Theory Predicts Relativity And Gravity

by
Vernon Brown
Stand Alone

Relativity phenomena and gravity are all-invasive parts of all material things. They must therefore be present at the most fundamental beginnings of nature's construct. We know how to describe nature to make this so. When we describe nature in this certain way, relativity phenomena and gravity are predicted and indeed, demanded by nature's construct. We know of no other way to describe the most fundamental constituents of nature so that relativity phenomena and gravity are a natural consequence of nature's construct.

All other experimentally verifiable natural phenomena are predicted.
These include all the forces of nature
and the strong force dynamics.

In order to demand relativity phenomena and gravity every physical reality in the universe must be comprised of electromagnetic fields. It must be comprised of that alone. Adding any other constituent breaks the arithmetic so that all natural phenomena are no longer predicted.

We have known since Lorentz described it for us that relativity phenomena is a natural result when we consider that all of nature is comprised of electromagnetic phenomena alone. Unification of the forces was easily accomplished within this construct of nature. There are two properties of space that predict and demand gravity in an electromagnetic universe.

Maxwell showed us that the two properties of empty space determine the speed of light. They were called electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in Maxwell's time. These constants convey gravity as indicated in the link.

Any fundamental theory that fails to demand relativity phenomena and gravity at its very core, can not be what is real in nature. The reason it can not be real is that we easily observe that relativity phenomena and gravity are real and they are present in every physical reality that we know about.

The evidence that this is so is overwhelming. There is no experimental evidence that it is not so. Yet, just about every established theory can not possibly be real given this construct of nature.

The sad thing is that we waste so much effort exploring ideas that can not possibly represent reality that we miss the obvious great improvements. The Quark Stripper has the potential to provide small compact power sources that could run individual households and cars for years on one drop of liquid hydrogen.