1502 Last modified November 22, 2016
The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. That one sentence fully describes an old idea that has had some degree of following among physicists for several hundred years. It became popular at about the turn of the twentieth century but its popularity declined with the introduction of quantum theory. The old theory is not compatible with quantum theory because with quantum theory, particle exchange is responsible for the forces of nature. With the old theory electric force fields are responsible for the forces of nature. There has never been any evidence that the old theory is false.
There are four generally accepted separate forces of nature, the electric, the strong, the weak, and gravity. If the old theory is true, all four must be some form of electric force. The electric, strong, and weak can be solved by considering that particles exist at some size determined by their mass, more massive being smaller. In that case, the electron is the largest of the particles because it is the least massive of all the particles. We know from mass-energy equivalence that higher frequencies translate to more mass and higher frequencies exist at shorter wavelength. Particle size would then conform to patterns of shorter wavelength and so the most massive particles would be the smallest.
Consider that the source of electric charge is the bent path of light and the tighter the bend, the greater the force. The electron then consists of an electromagnetic pattern with a certain surface diameter. The bent photon path that forms the pattern exhibits one electron worth of force. The proton consists of three similar photon patterns. The size, mass , and charge of the patterns must match observations. Masses of the patterns must equate to observed masses of electrons, protons, and neutrons. It turns out that there is a simple rule that provides match ups of these. The rule is: The mass of each pattern is the square of that of the next shell out.
The force of charge diminishes as the square of distance. Size, in our model decreases as the square of distance. Charge originating in the bent path of the inner photon patterns is greater than the charge of an electron but when sensed at the greater distance of the electron's radius, the charge is exactly equal to that of the electron. This explains constancy of electric charge. There is a ratio between the bend radius of the path of light and the force of charge. The tighter the bend radius, the greater the charge. The force of charge originating at the surface of the outer three shells equates to the force of the strong nuclear interaction. This is roughly a hundred thirty seven times the force of charge that originates at the surface of an electron's pattern.
This is not compatible with quark theory where each quark has one third the charge of an electron. Quark theory has no prediction for the source of electric charge. Quark theory prediction that each quark has one third the charge of an electron has no basis other than the QED notion of quark types of UP, DOWN, and TOP. In quark theory, some combination of those three quarks make up protons and neutrons. There is no dominating reason for why this must be so.
The most cited argument against the idea that all physical reality is electromagnetic in nature is that electron size is too small to accommodate its mass-equivalent wave length. But, electron size has never been determined. Attempted measurements showed nothing so it was assumed that the electron was smaller then the capability of instruments to detect. But the instruments were designed to detect something solid, and if electrons only consist of their fields, and nothing else, something solid can never be found. If there is something solid to an electron, and that something solid has any mass at all, it breaks the well established mass-energy equivalence equations. This holds for the other particles as well.
There is a long-standing problem about electrons in atoms. It is not possible for electrons to orbit protons as in the traditional atom structure. Lines of force would stop the electrons motion. Now, with the electron many times larger than protons, we can see that the electron would engulf the proton so that the proton would exist within the electron structure in which case no lines of force need be crossed. Electrons of different energy levels would adjust their planes to be compatible with greater energy being smaller. This solves a puzzle about helium.
A helium atom consists of two protons, usually two neutrons, and two electrons. Yet, it is smaller than a hydrogen atom with one proton and one electron. In our new atomic structure with electrons engulfing nuclei, we simply have helium electrons with greater energy than hydrogen electrons. Since greater energy equates to a shorter wavelength the electron pattern in helium would be smaller.
Physicists have spent lifetimes developing energy levels in atoms and will be very reluctant to think in different terms. The maths they developed are still relevant, its just the visualization that changes from an impossible scenario to a possible one. Electrons absorb and emit photons, just as before, but they change size in response, not orbits. Electrical patterns at higher energy levels are smaller, not larger as with the orbital theory.
Sir Author Eddington described electromagnetic gravity in a paper he published in 1920. A current day physicist Doctor Albrecht Giese arrived at the same conclusion independently. They both ascribe the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Electromagnetic activity in an area directly determines the impedance of that area. Impedance of an area of space determines the speed of light through that area. Comprised of light, material particles must migrate toward greater impedance. This notion solves another great puzzle of nature. Why does gravity bend the path of a photon of light twice as much as it bends the path of a particle of matter?
Doctor Albrecht Giese shows why this is so. It is because patterns of light that make up the elementary particles have components that move in all directions. Some will be radial to the massive object and some will be tangential to the massive object. Doctor Giese shows that the radial component will experience the full force of gravity while components moving tangential to it will only experience half the force of gravity. Components part way between radial and tangential directions experience portions of the force.
The Big Bang scenario of the creation of the universe is not compatible with the old idea that electromagnetic activity comprises all of nature. An early expansion stage in the Big Bang scenario violates many natural laws that we hold to be valid. We have no evidence that the natural laws of nature change over time, so we can guess that they probably did not.
The notion that Black Holes exist is not compatible with the idea that gravity derives from electromagnetic activity. Several unexplained things about gravity tell us that we do not yet have it right. Einstein's General Relativity comes close but fails to explain the rotation speed of galaxies. Also, elliptical orbits do not behave exactly the way they should. There seems to be a kind of negative feedback that weakens gravity as gravity increases. We do know that increased gravity slows time. Force multiplied by time determines acceleration. So there is a possible source of the negative feedback in gravity. It involves relativity concepts that are ignored, but should not be. This negative feedback assures that a gravitational singularity can never be reached. A super massive mass can never reach the status of a Black Hole. Einstein knew this and stated it several times.
Institutions of higher learning have embraced quantum theory to the extent that anything that suggests it may not be correct can not be published. This increases the life of quantum theory. Without this strange adherence to current ideas, quantum theory probably would not have survived Erwin Schrodinger who with Einstein thought that quantum theory was a great scourge of physics.
Michael Faraday was probably the originator of the concept that all of nature derives from the electromagnetic field. Publications of his time produced cartoons that ridiculed the idea. Mainstream physicists considered Michael Faraday as an outsider who should dine with the servants rather than sit at the main table with the learned few. Academia continues to avoid the idea of a photon-only universe and still ridicules the idea while accepting wildly weird notions like quantum theory.
For over a hundred years now physicists have known that photons both create gravity and respond to gravity. However there has never been a clear understanding about just what it is that causes gravity. Over the years we have thought about that a lot and recently came across the web site of Doctor Albrecht Giese. He ascribes the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. This notion was also held by Sir Author Eddington who published a paper about it in 1920. Excerpt here
Doctor Giese describes the mechanism very well but does not provide the fundamental cause of the refraction other than that gravity slows the speed of light and the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. But this seems to be a circular argument. We can provide the fundamental cause of the slowing of light speed and break out of that circular argument. But first a little background:
The main purpose of this web site is to investigate whether or not there exists anything in this universe other than electromagnetic activity. That idea is more than a hundred years old and has never been falsified. Since that idea precludes most accepted theories, the falsification of it should be a high priority, but it is hardly ever even mentioned in mainstream scientific media. The oldest mention we can find of the idea comes from the time of Michael Faraday and was of the form: "The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field." That old idea easily unifies all the forces of nature as shown here.
Now to get back to the fundamental cause for the slowing of light speed in the presence of matter. In accord with the old idea that has never been falsified, all of matter consists of electromagnetic activity. It is just a small step forward then to hypothesize that electromagnetic activity provides the mechanism that slows the speed of light. That mechanism is that the presence of electromagnetic activity increases the impedance of space. We can think of this as negative feedback provided by electromagnetic activity upon itself.
In order for this to work we must examine just how it is that light speed is slowed. Accepted theory is that light is repeatedly absorbed and emitted by electrons in atoms, but this does not work here. Why should it be that the impedance of space determines the speed at which atoms absorb and emit light? It is more likely that the impedance of space slows the rate at which electromagnetic amplitude changes. With that notion, we close the circle to complete the hypothesis that gravity is nothing more than the impedance of space as regulated by the presence of electromagnetic activity.
We can now predict that the amount of red shift in light from distant objects in space will vary according to the amount of electromagnetic activity the light encounters on its way to the observer. The reasoning is this: The gravity provided by the electromagnetic activity of photons on the way to the observer may change the momentum of objects in space. This change of momentum requires energy that must come from the photons providing the gravity. Clouds of ions and space debris move in and out of the light path, and red shift varries accordingly.
We suspect that this variation in red shift has already been observed. However, no one would dare publish a report about such an observation. What we do find published are reports about quasars that become normal galaxies over the space of a few years. How can that happen without a change in the amount of red shift?
Electromagnetic activity in space directly determines the impedance of space which directly determines the speed of light. The speed of light directly determines gravity in accordance with the notions of Sir Author Eddington and Doctor Albrecht Giese. Proof in support of the hypothesis are time variant changes the amount of red shift in light from distant quasars.
Where We Stand
Reality Of Nature
Nature has no secrets; only great truths that it readily shows to all who will look. Someone somewhere knows all of these great truths but no one individual knows all. Academia's role is to select from among those who know, that set of known things that most likely represent reality. So when we say we just don't know, we really mean that academia has not yet selected from among the many competing theories, that set of ideas that explains the unknown subject. The slow pace of academia's selections keeps us from accepting wrong ideas, in theory. But academia has a very poor track record. In all of recorded history, academia selected the unreal over the real almost every time.
For example, academia choose the earth centered solar system model of Aristotle and Ptolemy over that of astronomer Aristarchus of Samos Greece (310 - 230 BC) who proposed a sun centered system almost identical to that of Copernicus. We only know of the Aristarchus proposal because Archimedes described it in his book, "The Sand Reckoner". Academia liked the unreal Ptolemy model because it fit the religious views of the time. It was blasphemy to suggest that the earth was not the center of the universe. A sun centered solar system was gradually and grudgingly accepted after Copernicus showed the mathematical beauty of it. Published just before his death in 1543, his ideas were immediately trashed and ridiculed by academia.
Hundreds of such examples abound throughout history. That brings us to the point of this set of thoughts. Among the most sacred ideas entrenched in academia today are those of Quantum theory. Scholars even suggest that Einstein and Schrodinger were senile because they did not accept Quantum Theory. Philosophers said from the beginning that Quantum Theory was philosophically unsound at its foundation. They said this because Quantum Theory did not meet philosophical tests for reality. It now is blasphemy to suggest that Quantum Theory may not represent reality.
When we look back, we find that philosophical reality and accepted theory converge at about the turn of the twentieth century. At that time the prevailing notion about physical reality was that the electromagnetic field comprised all of it. Physicists of the time formulated a set of equations based upon that notion. This set of equations, known as the Lorentz Transformations, still predicts all of relativity phenomena. Nothing observed in nature rules out the notion that electromagnetic activity accounts for all of it. However, the notion that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field, is not compatible with Quantum Theory. It seems that when reality does not agree with Quantum Theory, academia suspects that reality is wrong.
We each can develop our own unique understanding of the way the universe works by choosing ideas from among renowned physicists. We will do that now. The rules are simple. We start at the place where philosophical reality and accepted theory converged. We inspect ideas that developed from that time in the past to the present. We select from among renowned physicists, ideas that bring back causality and philosophically sound notions to the description of reality.
Soon after the turn of the twentieth century, several theories attempted to explain relativity phenomena. We join Doctor Albrecht Giese and accept as real the Lorentz version of relativity. In doing so we must reject Einstein's version. Einstein's notion that inertial frames of reference were reciprocal allowed paradoxes such as the twins paradox where each twin sees the other age more than himself. The Lorentz version of relativity avoids this by providing a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. All phenomena is relative to that special frame. Academia still prefers the Einstein version.
We accept as real the notion of gravity as explained by Sir Author Eddington in 1920. Eddington surmised that the path of light must always bend toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised of light, material objects must migrate toward that same direction. Current day physicist, Doctor Albrecht Giese of Germany, independently arrived at that same notion about gravity. Doctor Giese shows with mathematical certainty why it is that the path of light bends twice as much as the path of material objects bend as each passes a gravity source. Other notions about gravity do not explain this. Academia does not yet accept this great truth.
Two constants of empty space determine the speed of light in a perfect vacuum. However, there is no place where a perfect vacuum exists. The presence of electromagnetic activity alters the two constants such that the greater the activity, the greater the constants, and the slower the speed of light. Maxwell's equations relate the speed of light to electric permittivity and magnetic permeability such that the speed of light equals one divided by the square root of the product of the two constants. In a universe where all things consist of electromagnetic activity, material objects radiate massive amounts of the fields.
Sir Author Eddington provided another great notion at a time when it was not possible to test it. That notion was that starlight must warm space debris and provide a black body radiation temperature of about 3.18 K. This is close to the measured value of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of about 2.725 K. So we accept Eddington's idea and reject the idea that the CMBR represents the remnants of a cooled down Big Bang. There was no Big Bang. Academia still accepts the notion of a Big Bang, even though physical laws of nature must be violated to arrive at that notion.
Academia still has no clear answer to the question, "what is mass?" But a few physicists have known the answer since the turn of the twentieth century. The great French mathematician, Jules Henri Poincare noticed that pulses of light had the property of momentum. That property was previously associated only with matter, or mass. He quantified the momentum of light as equivalent to mass with an equation that stated that mass equals the frequency of the light divided by the speed of light squared. Substitute the word, "is," for the equal sign and we have the answer to the question, "what is mass". It is variation in the amplitude of electric and magnetic fields. Mass is electromagnetic change. We sense the mass when the change is confined to a local area. Einstein referred to this equation as E = mc2 in some of his works.
Doctor Robert Hofstadter of Stanford received the 1961 Nobel prize in physics for his discovery of atomic nuclear structure. He proposed a simple shell structure for atomic nuclei. Academia has not yet accepted a shell model and Hofstadter never developed his hypothesis further. We can propose a shell structure for elementary particles consistent with Hofstadter's work. Such a structure has atomic nuclei comprised of sandwiched shells such that each shell mass is the square of the mass of the next shell out. Four such shells make up a neutron and three make up a proton. The sum of the calculated masses fit the measured values.
Doctor Hofstadter bombarded atomic nuclei with electrons of energy on the order of two hundred million electron volts. He calculated nuclear structure based upon how the electrons scattered. The scatter pattern also indicates the size of the particle from which the electrons scattered. Higher energy levels detect smaller particles and miss the subtle electromagnetic structure. The shell structure proposed here consists only of subtle electric and magnetic fields. Higher energy levels miss them completely. One photon comprises each shell. Its wave length determines shell size. Based upon this, the electron must be the largest of the elementary particles. Electrons do not orbit, or exist as a probability cloud around protons. The much larger electrons engulf smaller protons and neutrons.
Doctor Max Planck discovered that electromagnetic radiation existed only as discrete multiples of its frequency times a small value. Known as Planck's constant, the value is expressed as ergs, or energy time. Since frequency is infinitely variable, the actual energy value is also infinitely variable. The actual energy amount depends only upon the frequency. Strangely absent is the electromagnetic amplitude of he E and B fields. Since amplitude is not part of the equations, the amplitude of the E and B fields must be constant. This constant amplitude of the E and B fields must be a fundamental constant property of space. It is the fundamental cause of the quantum nature of light.
Cold Fusion Update
Nature's Natural Facts
Space is flat in the classic sense and extends forever outward throughout the empty void. It has no end. It does not expand, stretch, or distort in any sense. It is simply empty nothingness. This concept not only predicts but demands all observed phenomena including relativity and all the forces of nature.
Time plods on from past to future at a constant rate. It does not distort or change its rate of progress in response to the movement of objects. Objects experience time as a count of repetitions of patterns in atoms that comprise the objects. The repetition rate of patterns in atoms slow with movement because the most elemental constituent of all physical reality must always move at the invariant speed of light relative to a special inertial frame of reference. Objects in motion thus experience time as moving slower than objects at rest because their most elemental constituents must move through a greater distance to complete their patterns. All of nature consists of this most elemental constituent. This causes all of the observed spatial distortion of objects in motion.
Special Inertial Frame
All of nature exists in the inertial frame of reference that is here and now. All movement in this inertial frame is relative to a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. This special inertial frame is observable as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is black-body radiation that represents the temperature of space debris. The Milky Way Galaxy and all the neighboring galaxies move through the background toward the constellation Leo at the rate of about five hundred miles per second.
The empty space has two properties that determine the speed of light. These two properties represent the ability of empty space to transport electric and magnetic activity. Electric and magnetic activity affect the two properties such that the presence of electric and magnetic activity impede additional activity by slowing the rate of change of electric and magnetic amplitude. This negative feedback property provides gravitational phenomena by restricting the speed of light in areas of massive activity. Massive objects comprised solely of electromagnetic activity provide islands of massive electromagnetic activity and affect the speed of light in close proximity to them. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised solely of electromagnetic patterns, massive objects must migrate toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. This electromagnetic activity provides all gravitational phenomena.
All electromagnetic activity in the universe connects to all other electromagnetic activity in the universe by instantaneous coupling of charge. When this gravitational phenomena causes a change in momentum of any object in space, conservation demands an exchange of energy. This exchange occurs instantaneously via frequency shift in electromagnetic activity. The frequency of photons in space must change to accommodate this. Free photons moving through space produce gravity and experience a gradual frequency shift toward the red end of the spectrum as the gravity they provide causes momentum change in other space entities.
Red Shift Amount
The amount of red shift is generally time dependent but may differ depending upon the photon's path through space. Paths that traverse very energetic regions may red shift differently than paths that traverse less energetic regions. Each galaxy produces very energetic beams that spew out perpendicular to the galactic plane. Photons that pass through these beams may shift frequency more than photons that do not pass through the beams.
Photon frequency may vary smoothly from almost zero to almost infinity but the electric and magnetic field amplitude exist as sine waves that always peak at a finite constant maximum amplitude. This finite constant maximum amplitude provides the quantum nature of electromagnetic energy. The electric and magnetic fields of all electromagnetic activity contain points that peak at this amplitude. Spatially extended fields drive these points through space at the constant speed of light.
The fields exist as crossed planes and extend instantly outward forever away from the points. Since the area of a plane increases as the square of distance, force field amplitude decreases as the square of distance. Changing amplitude throughout the fields couple instantly to drive the points through space. Fields drive the points but interaction only happens near the points. When interaction does happen, phase dynamics between interacting entities determine the exact location of the interaction. This provides the observed uncertainty since these dynamics can never be known.
Electromagnetic fields may interfere with each other to deflect their progress through space. This deflection may occur such that the electric plane occupies the radius of the bent path. When the electric plane occupies that radius the negative and positive electric fields can not be symmetrical. Which ever field occupies the outside of the bend dominates to produce an electric charge that originates at the radius of the bend. The charge amplitude relates to the bend radius such that the smaller the bend radius the greater the charge amplitude.
The electric charge at the bend radius of a photon path repels itself to produce positive feedback that bends the path more in the same direction. At one certain frequency, complete stable patterns may resonate to form an electron and a positron. The stability of the pattern comes from positive feedback and resonance. The dual nature of pair production comes from the necessity for equal interference energies. Electrons and positrons thus formed exist only as their electric and magnetic field structures.
A one wavelength loop completes the most simple pattern. The pattern spins at the speed of light in the primary direction and spins in a secondary flat-wise direction to form a sphere. The electric charge originates at the circumference of the pattern. It forms a structure such that one polarity faces toward the outside and the opposite polarity faces toward the inside.
Protons and Neutrons
More massive electron-like structures may form at frequencies greater than that of the electron. Four of these may be stable when arranged in sandwiched shells such that each subsequent shell mass and electric charge is the square of that of the next shell out. Each of these shells exist only as electromagnetic activity that exists at a circumference equal to the wave length of the equivalent energy of the shell's mass. Measurements of particle size for the proton and neutron were not correct because researchers used probe energy that was too high. They detected only the innermost shell. The correct shell sizes become detectable at probe energies less than two hundred mev.
Square of the Shells
The Square of the Shells rule sets the mass and charge value of the electron as unity and calculates the mass and charge value of shells that comprise protons and neutrons. Shell one, the neutron's outer shell, must contain the mass, energy, and charge difference between a proton and a neutron. When this shell one mass and charge value is set to 2.549920405 electron masses and electron charges, the rule works to provide the masses and charge values of all subsequent shells.
Constancy of Charge
Although the force of the electric field at the circumference of the neutron is more than twice that of an electron, it measures exactly one electron force when sensed at the larger radius of the electron. This is because the force diminishes as the square of distance away from the source and the electron size is about five times the size of the neutron's outer shell.
This leads to a major realization about how electrons interact with atomic nuclei. Electrons can not simply orbit oppositely charged nuclei because charge interaction would slow the electron and drive it into the nuclei. With this model, charge interaction from atomic nuclei snaps the larger electron onto the nuclei so that the electron engulfs the nuclei. The electron is held in place by electric charge equilibrium. The outward facing positive charge of the proton's outer shell faces off against the inward facing positive charge of the electron's only shell.
Atomic nuclei follow this same pattern. Sandwiched shells each face off against like charges and find equilibrium with smaller, more massive, inner shells. Inner shells dominate and hold the outer shells in place. Elements with more than one nucleus may form when the two most inner shells of a proton punch through the outer shells of another proton. The inner shells then find equilibrium between their outer facing negative charge and the inner facing negative charge of the proton's outer shell.
Strong force dynamics.
There is a strange dynamic to the strong nuclear forces that bind atomic nuclei together. The force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear altogether. The model presented here solves the mystery of that strange dynamic. Trapped inside the proton's outer shell, the inner shells must pass through like charges to separate. After the inside shells pass through the outer, the forces, although still there, are not sensed as anything other than the normal electric proton charge.
Feedback systems are common in electronics. We obtain feedback by feeding a portion of the output of a system back to the input. Positive feedback operates to enhance a process and negative feedback operates to oppose a process. We use these systems to our advantage in computers and many other things. Just recently we noticed that there is a negative feedback system at work in the force of gravity.
Sir Isaac Newton described gravity for us in the mid sixteen hundreds and Einstein modified Newton's version with General Relativity in the early nineteen hundreds. Hidden in Einstein's General Relativity, the mechanism of negative feedback goes unnoticed. The Lorentz version of relativity phenomena also contains the mechanism and it is unnoticed there as well. Gravity affects the passage of time and the speed of light in a negative way.
Sir Author Eddington published a paper in 1920 that described gravity as refraction of light. He used an analogy of a runner going through a concentric field of hurdles to show that the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Recently Doctor Albrecht Giese also showed that gravity derives from the refraction of light and went on to show that the path of light must bend twice as much as the path of a material object in a gravitational field. Doctor Giese shows the cause and provides the equations to calculate the paths of both.
Negative feedback comes about as the two constants that determine the speed of light are modified by the presence of gravity. So gravity modifies constants that determine the speed of light and the speed of light determines the amount of gravity. Negative feedback operates to limit the force of gravity. Taken to the extreme as in a gravitational singularity, the limitation would be infinite.
We can look at this another way. Gravity slows an objects experience of time. Time is a factor in acceleration. We calculate acceleration by multiplying force and time. Slow time means less acceleration. So we prove by a second method that gravity provides negative feedback for gravity.
We can describe a universe so alien from our own that no established theory that we accept today can be real. Yet try as we might, we can devise no test that can distinguish this hypothetical universe from the universe that we sense around us. The notion has been around for about two hundred years and seems to have originated before the time of Maxwell. Physicists of the early twentieth century used the main postulate of the hypothesis to explain relativity phenomena. Despite all efforts to prove the notion false, it remains the only philosophically sound hypothesis that shows clear cause and effect for all natural phenomena that we know about.
Since its inception, this hypothesis has been ridiculed by main stream media and institutions of higher learning. A London newspaper in the 1800's published a cartoon depicting a prominent physicist attempting to unify the forces of nature by use of the hypothesis. This may be a clue that the major premise of the hypothesis originated with Michael Faraday. No matter who originated the notion, it stubbornly resists falsification even though most established theory can not possibly be real if the hypothesis is real. There is much evidence that the hypothesis is real. There is no evidence that it is not real. Google: TheEvidence.html Michael Faraday was not successful in his attempt to unify the forces but Professor Willis Thompson described a self-consistent unification somewhat later.
The major premise that we suspect originated with Faraday is: The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Maxwell produced equations that satisfied all of Faraday's experimental results. The equations could be solved for the speed of light with no consideration given for the speed of the inertial system that contained the light. This ended any reasonable notion that material things might consist of anything other than electromagnetic fields. Unreasonable notions of that early period do continue to flourish and still command the main body of established theory.
In the hypothesis, space-time is flat in the classic sense, and the speed of light is constant relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. Matter that is held together by a light-like substance must distort with movement because of the constant speed of light. Not only the shape of matter but the time experience of matter must distort. All physical reality is related to the speed of light because all physical reality is made of light. Physicists in the time of Lorentz pondered that concept and produced a set of equations that we know as the Lorentz transformations. Back then, they could not test the equations by experiment. Now we can test them. The equations hold true. Einstein used them in his theory of relativity.
Time dilation seems to be the part of relativity phenomena that is most difficult for people to grasp. It is very simple, however. In order to understand how it works we must remember that it is local time and not time in general that experiences distortion. Local time is the time experienced by the moving object. The time experience of any object is the count of repetitions of patterns within the object. Stop and think so you know this is true. Our time standard is a count of the vibration repeats of the Cesium atom. Patterns repeat more slowly relative to the fixed inertial frame in space because components that repeat in the patterns must move through a greater distance when the containing object is moving. The local time of the moving object is thus slowed by movement. Time dilation is nothing more than that.
Relativity phenomena provides the most direct evidence that all of nature consists solely of electric and magnetic activity. There is no other reasonable way to show cause for relativity. All things change shape and experience time differently when in motion. We can show cause for the phenomena when we consider that all motion must be relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. The reality of relativity departs from the theory of relativity in that reality demands a fixed inertial frame at rest in space.
Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts reciprocity for observers viewing reciprocal movement. This gives rise to the famous Twins Paradox. Google: Twins Paradox. In the paradox, each twin sees the other experience time dilation but sees no time dilation for themselves. Each should then see the other as being older than himself when the twins are brought back together. Advocates for Einstein's version of relativity explain that one of the twins may experience more acceleration than the other. This is true, however, even though one twin experienced more acceleration than the other, acceleration does not matter in Einstein's theory. Only speed matters.
This does not happen with the Lorentz version of relativity supported here. Although the actual measurements are almost the same, there is a slight difference. Each twin experiences time dilation relative to an inertial reference frame that is at rest in space. Age differences then calculate correctly. The oldest twin moved the greatest distance relative to the fixed reference frame. This avoids the paradox and conforms to the Lorentz version of relativity. Google: Lorentz Ether Theory.
In actual practice we do use a special inertial frame to measure the motion of the Milky Way Galaxy through space. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation occupies an inertial frame that seems to be the same throughout the universe. All the nearby galaxies move through the CMBR toward the constellation Leo at a rate of about five hundred miles per second. Although institutions of learning teach against the fact, natural intuition has already correctly placed the CMBR as the special inertial frame that is at rest in space.
The discovery of quantum phenomena by Max Planck in 1900 sparked a revolution in physics that gave birth to quantum theory. Quantum theory was coupled with statistical probability and the uncertainty principle to describe a version of nature that was accepted by academia and is still taught as the greatest advancement in physics to date. Despite its success, the theory remains philosophically unsound at its foundation. It does not attempt to answer the questions, "how come the quantum, how come gravity, how come uncertainty, and how come matter."
There is a simple explanation for each of those. First, all quantum phenomena develops from the fact that the electric and magnetic amplitude of the E and B fields of photons are constants. We know this because the amplitude of the E and B fields are not part of the equation for photon action. (Planck's Constant.) If that amplitude were variable, it would necessarily be part of the equation. It is not there. Only the rate of change in amplitude expressed as frequency is there. It makes sense that the saturation amplitude of the E and B fields of photons is the maximum electric and magnetic amplitude that space can support. That is how come the quantum.
How come uncertainty? Statistical probability is a mathematical fact. It has its own set of well established laws and standards. We can apply those laws and standards to all of nature and arrive at a certain understanding of the general process of natural events. But, no matter the amount of data applied, it is composed of individual events each of which behaves in accord with its own set of natural laws.
When it approaches a target, an individual photon will interact with electrons in the target. Individual electrons in the target interact with an approaching photon depending upon phase relationships. The photon will bypass electrons that have an unfavorable phase to interact with electrons with a favorable phase relationship. That is the simplistic explanation of why we can never predict the exact position of photon interaction with a target. That is how come uncertainty.
Energy becomes matter when enough of it is confined in a local area. Pair creation of an electron and positron happens when a local concentration of energy exceeds the equivalent energy of their mass. All components of atomic nuclei are routinely created in electron-positron collision experiments. Electrons and positrons collide and out of the collisions come all sub-atomic particles. Observed in the laboratory, this process must also happen in space.
The Photon Theory of Matter advances the concept in relation to recent findings about nature. All of the new ideas derive from similar notions held by renowned physicists of the past and of the present. The most controversial idea seems to be that photons create gravity. This should not be controversial. It forms the backbone of established mainstream theory. It is a major component of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Photon theory advances this notion only slightly by stating that photons and only photons create and respond to gravity. We show the mechanism by which that happens.
According to the photon theory of matter, a residual electric field results from a bend in the path of photons. The field amplitude is greatest at, and inversely proportional to, the radius of the bend. The smaller the bend radius, the greater the charge sensed at that radius. Because sensed charge amplitude decreases as the square of distance from the charge source, sensed charge amplitude of a single bend is a constant value. The value is always equal to an electron's charge when sensed at a distance away that is greater than an electron's radius.
The Photon Theory of Matter departs from traditional particle sizes. Traditional measurements for particle size use a flawed technique. Probe energy is much too great to sense the subtle electromagnetic fields that mark the outer particle boundaries. These particle boundaries can be calculated. They exist at a circumference equal to one wavelength of the equivalent energy of the particles. Probes of energy levels designed to detect field reversal structures where the electron's outer negative charge abruptly changes to its inner positive charge will successfully measure the correct size for the electron.
Like charges repel. So the charge created by the bend in the path of a photon acts upon itself to bend the path more in the same direction. This action is termed, positive feedback. Positive feedback coupled with resonance can trap a photon in a stable pattern to produce an electron and a positron. While in this pattern, the photon retains all its properties including the production of, and response to, gravity. The inherent frequency stability of the photon shows up as inertia in the matter.
Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts the gravitational behavior of objects in our solar system with great success. But when applied on the galactic scale, something is wrong. Stars move around the galactic center faster than they should. In order to salvage GR theory, we need a new form of matter. Dark Matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for this discrepancy. Fritz Zwicky used the concept in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Google: Dark Matter.
Photon theory does not rely upon exotic states of matter including dark matter or dark energy or anything else that is not observed. Galaxies operate as the recycling behemoths of the universe. They convert matter to energy in stars and stars to energy in a super-massive ionic soup at galactic centers. Radiation and ionic debris spew out to form a halo around galaxies. This halo provides all the additional gravity needed to explain galactic rotation speeds.
Einstein's General Relativity theory demands that gravity attract light. Conversely, General Relativity also demands that light create gravity. Einstein was not alone and maybe not even the originator of the notion that light creates gravity. Sir Author Eddington showed a mechanism by which light must create gravity in his paper of 1920. Google is your friend: Eddington 1920.
No matter the theory we use, there can be no doubt that photons do create gravity. We also know that any gravitational source must provide energy to change the momentum of any object in space. Gravity provided by photons in space changes the momentum of objects in space. Photons in space must provide energy to change the momentum of objects in space. Experiments show that this does happen. This loss of energy by photons in space shows up as a red shift in the spectrum of energy in space. The energy loss is directly proportional to time just as we expect.
Through the ages there has never been a shortage of speculation about the mechanism of gravity. Among the speculation, Sir Author Eddington provided a version that is mathematically certain provided only that Maxwell's equations hold true. Published in his 1920 paper, Eddington ascribed refraction of light as the mechanism that produces gravity.
Eddington knew that the two constants of space, electric permittivity, and magnetic permeability, determine the speed of light. Those two properties are modified by the presence of electric and magnetic activity such that more activity increases the effect. The result is that the speed of light is slower where electric and magnetic activity is greater. The path of light must bend toward the direction where the speed of light is slower.
Established theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes most of the mass of matter. Photon theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes all of the mass of matter. Given that electromagnetic activity creates gravity, what else can there be that creates gravity? Equations that convert mass to its energy equivalent demand that all of the mass convert. There is not something left over that might produce gravity. The released energy in such a conversion continues to create gravity. Gravity is conserved when mass becomes energy.
The force of gravity diminishes as the inverse square of distance. This is a clue that it exists as planes like the fields of electric and magnetic force. The area of a circular plane increases as the square of its radius. The area of a sphere increases as the cube of its radius. If gravity propagated as a spherical force, it should diminish as the inverse cube of distance. Since it exists as multiple plainer forces, it diminishes as we measure, as the inverse square of distance.
There is another powerful similarity between gravity and electromagnetic forces. They seem to exist instantly in that they do not suffer aberration. Although a photon moves through space at the constant speed of light, the spatially extended field structure does not seem to be swept back but moves right along intact. If the planes of force propagated at the speed of light, they would trail behind and so be swept back from the leading point of the photon.
At the turn of the twientieth century most scientists believed that:
The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the elctromagnetic field.
That notion not only predicted, it demanded, all observed phenomena of relativity.
There is still no evidence that the old idea was wrong.
But if it was right, established theory including:
Space and Time
Physicists of the early twentieth century concluded that, "the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. The notion reasonably explains the cause of all relativity phenomena. Physicists will eventually see that Quantum Theory is flawed at its philosophical foundation just as many of its original founders did. A growing number of physicists have returned to this alternate view of nature's reality and developed new insights into it. The following paragraphs outline some of the new insights.
Flat space-time and the invariant speed of light operate in a special fixed inertial frame to provide relativity phenomena. This special inertial frame exists as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Radiated starlight determines the temperature of the CMBR. With this construct, the physical laws of nature forbid the Big Bang and Black Hole scenarios. Behold, the mechanism of relativity as explained by Doctor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and many others in the early 1900's.
The presence of electric and magnetic charge determines the impedance of space. This impedance directly determines the propagation speed of electromagnetic activity. The path of electromagnetic activity must bend toward the direction of greater impedance. Electromagnetic activity in matter pull the matter toward greater impedance. Behold, the mechanism of gravity as explained by Sir Author Eddington in 1920.
Electromagnetic activity tends to trap itself in patterns of a size related to its wavelength by the mechanism of positive feedback and resonance. One certain frequency forms a stable pattern by itself to produce an electron or a positron. These two exist only at the circumference of their patterns. Since their wavelength is the greatest, the size of their patterns is the largest of all the elementary particles.
Electromagnetic activity traps itself in many patterns that exist for a short time and decay back into electromagnetic activity. Four of these may be stable in combination with each other. A proton exists as a sandwiched shell structure of three of these. A neutron exists as four shells. The outer shell of the neutron contains the mass-energy difference between that of a neutron and a proton.
The square of the mass and charge value of the neutron's outer shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's outer shell. The square of the mass and charge value of the proton's outer shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's middle shell. The square of the mass and charge value of the proton's middle shell provide the mass and charge value of the proton's third and final shell.
The sum of the masses of all the shells produce the mass value of the neutron. The sum of the masses of the inner three shells produce the mass value of the proton. The sum of the charge values of two of the proton's middle shells and two of its outer shells produce the strong nuclear force.
Charge amplitude decreases as the square of distance. The greater charge amplitudes of the inner shells measure one electron charge when sensed at the greater radius of the electron.
Message From Nick
I stumbled on your theory by trying to find an answer to the question, 'what is the max/min value of the electric field of a photon?' All I was able to calculate was the field intensity at a distance from a source emitting photons in all directions. This was just a measurement of the flux of photons/energy through a surface, but that did not explain what values the E (and B) field could reach for a single photon oscillating in free space.
Furthermore, I agree wholeheartedly with your postulate that all things in the universe reduce to light and the EM field.
Flux density of the E and B field of a photon has not been determined as far as I know. Robert Kemp attempted it in his, Quantization of the EM Change paper. Here are some things we suspect about the E and B values of photons.
The maximum E and B values of the photon field occur at two points in each photon represented by T2 and T4 in the schematic image to the left.
They are fundamental constants of nature related to Planck's constant.
They are the fundamental cause of Planck's constant and quantum phenomena.
The points are at the maximum possible value of the E and B field strength that space can support.
The charge order of the shells is determined by the positive charge of the proton. That begins the sequence for three shells.
I suspect that a positive ion has a greater propensity to become a hydrogen atom than a neutron because the electron is stable and a neutron's outer shell is not. A positive ion is not likely to encounter a neutron size shell in empty space.
Hold the thought of the shell that contributes only 0.35% of the proton's mass. Without that shell the proton would be unstable and would release all its energy as gamma radiation.
I suspect that the proton has a definite structure based upon the dynamics of the fields but I am just guessing about what that structure is. It should arrange itself so that the magnetic lines of force are complete between shells like the image to the left that I use as my avatar. So, yes, I suspect that the orbit of each shell interlocks with the fields of the next shell. Also, over the years I have come to suspect that the shells occupy the same plane so that the magnetic field lines can complete. The image above was from my early conjecture.
I agree with you that it makes more sense that the shells occupy the same plane. The charge value in the chart is the value at the radius of the shell. The charge value of each shell is the charge value of an electron when sensed from any distance greater than an electron's radius. This is because sensed charge value decreases as the square of distance.
Furthermore, when you calculate the strong force by summing the contributions from the middle and outer proton shells for 2 protons (6.5+42.2+6.5+42.2=97.558), this confuses me because you should not experience the full force of the shell if it is penetrated, and the reverse side of the shell's charge must also contribute. I guess this is just a 1st order approximation.
I suspect that each shell experiences the force of the side of the shell next closest. The force would be experienced as points of maximum amplitude passed each other in the dynamics of the bind. There is room for lots of work in this area. I haven't done much with the dynamics except to notice the strange dynamic that force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear.
What is the nature of the orbit of the neutron's outer shell? If the 3 shells of the proton occupy the xy, yz, and xz planes, what does that leave for the outer shell?
I suspect that the neutron occupies the same plane with the other shells and spins contrary to the outer shell of the proton so that magnetic lines of force are complete.
I came up with the shells rule while contemplating the masses of sandwiched shells. I knew that the relationship between shell masses would necessarily be exponential in order to equate to proton and neutron mass. The first thing I tried was to start with the neutron's outer shell and square each subsequent shell.
I have thought a lot about the dynamics of the energy levels of atoms but have not arrived at conclusions I am satisfied with. There are all kinds of possibilities. Several others who agree with the primary concept that all of nature is comprised of EM fields alone hold that the structure is much more complicated than I present.
We can show with mathematical certainty that this universe consists of electric and magnetic activity alone provided only that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light. His equations provide several solutions including one that uses only the electric and magnetic constants. The gold button links to a Wikki link about impedance of free space. Notice the symbols are modified by sub zero. The sub zero means absent electric and magnetic charge.
According to Maxwell the electric and magnetic constants of space determine the impedance of space. The constants must be adjusted for the presence of charge such that the presence of electric and magnetic charge increases impedance. The impedance of a local area of space determines the speed of light through that area. The path of light must bend toward greater impedance just as a car must swerve toward the side that hits an impeding puddle of water.
The gold bar on the left links to a web page where Dr. Albrecht Giese shows how objects whose mass derives mostly from electromagnetic activity, as in quantum theory, must gravitate toward concentrations of electromagnetic activity. The gold bar on the right links to our gravity page where we show that objects whose mass derives completely from electromagnetic activity must gravitate toward increased electromagnetic activity.
Sir Author Eddington realized that refraction of light must contribute as a source of gravity. Given that Maxwell got the equations right, this is a mathematical certainty. The gold bar links to an excerpt from Eddington's 1920 publication where he describes how refraction must contribute to gravity.
Physicists of the past provided us with two different theories of relativity. The Einstein version assumes variable space-time as the cause of relativity phenomena. The Lorentz version assumes variable matter and a special inertial frame of reference. Both use the Lorentz transformations to describe distortions in space and time as sensed between different inertial frames of reference.
The Lorentz version of relativity phenomena easily agrees with the electromagnetic contribution to gravity described above. The Einstein version requires much mathematical finagling but can agree. Philosophy suggests that the Lorentz version is probably the correct one.
Institutions of education accept Einstein's account of relativity over the Lorentz account. However, our GPS system must be adjusted for relativity phenomena using a special inertial frame of reference. For references search the terms GPS relativity adjustment.
The Lorentz version avoids problems like the twin paradox that Einstein's version can not easily solve. When we accept the Lorentz version we arrive at the notion that physicists realized back then. At the turn of the twentieth century, most physicists realized that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Another way of saying that is: All of nature behaves exactly as if all of nature is made of light.
If we accept the notion of conservation of energy, we see that when gravity causes a change of momentum, the gravity source must lose energy. We then expect that photons in space must lose energy as things in space change momentum in response to the gravity they create.
We observe in space an inertial frame of reference that is observable throughout the universe. Because it is observable throughout we can call it a special frame. We observe that our Milky Way galaxy and all nearby galaxies move through this special frame at the rate of about five hundred miles per second toward the constellation Leo.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation consists of a very narrow range of frequencies that we identify as Black Body radiation. The frequency of Black Body radiation is determined by the temperature of the entity emitting it. It seems to be the average temperature of the universe.
Physicists have estimated this temperature for centuries. Eddington published his estimates in 1926. He considered two sources that would contribute. One was starlight from our local galaxy and the other was galactic light to warm intergalactic space. His estimates were very close to the measured temperature of the CMBR.
We have shown how Maxwell's equations demand that photons create gravity. We found that Eddington showed how the equations of Maxwell demanded that photons create gravity. We showed that the Lorentz version explains all relativity phenomena in flat space-time and a universe made of light. All these facts lead to the conclusion that we live in the electromagnetic universe.
Short Microwave Bursts
Microwave Bursts that last only a few seconds were used to measure the arrival times of photons. One purpose was to determine whether shorter wavelength photons arrived at the same time as longer wavelength photons. Measurements showed that they arrived at the same time. This discredited the argument that 1a Super Nova event duration was spread out in time by discriminate delay of short and long wavelength photons.
It is possible that the burst came from a beam that swept past the receiver. This would negate the result because the measured photons would not necessarily have departed the source at the same time.
Arithmetic is a wonderful thing. With it we can logically deduce things we can be certain about. We can know with certainty that one and one is two. The arithmetic tells us so. We do not doubt it.
Only slightly more complicated is the fact that gravity is an electromagnetic phenomena as shown in the gold-bar-linked paper. This is a mathematical certainty given that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light.
Once we accept the paper's premise that gravity is a simple process of refraction of light, we can find the cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.
As shown in the gold-bar link, when a force applied to any entity causes that entity to change momentum, work is done. Work requires energy. Energy is conserved. When gravity from a photon causes any entity to change momentum, that photon must give up energy. A photon gives up energy by shifting its wavelength toward the red end of the spectrum.
So that wonderful tool, arithmetic, gives us the fundamental cause of gravity and the fundamental cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.
Faster Than Light
A Fundamental Theory