As I See It
Stand Alone Version
As I look at the universe through the thoughts and guesses of the greatest thinkers history has known, I arrive at a picture much different than the guesses of the selected few physicists who control the media today. Faraday, suspected that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Maxwell advanced the concept with his equations. Lorentz advanced the ideas still more by showing that such a construct for the universe would produce all relativity phenomena that we observe. As I studied these and other great thinkers a picture of a universe that consists solely of light emerged in my mind.
My universe consists solely of electromagnetic phenomena and has existed in much the same form as it now exists for more time than anyone can imagine. This includes gravity and the nuclear forces. I did not arrive at this conclusion easily or alone. All the notions that I advocate are held by other physicists with doctorate degrees in the physical sciences.
Years ago, I realized that the Big Bang was just another creation theory. There was no real evidence that supported it other than the fact that electromagnetic activity loses energy as it ages. Tired Light Theories sprang up among the detractors and were quickly sat aside by the Big Bang theorists. There was no real mechanism known that could rob energy from light without also dispersing the light. Such dispersing of light is not observed. We now know that such a mechanism does exist. It was first mentioned by Sir Author Eddington in his paper of 1920.
Early in the twenty first century, many of us realized almost simultaneously that gravity is actually an electromagnetic phenomena. Not only do photons create gravity but photons are the only source of gravity. Photons react to gravity by changing momentum toward a gravity source.
The gold button on the left links to a web page that explains gravity in terms of electromagnetic activity. The web site has links to peer reviewed similar explanations by physicists with doctorates in physical science.
Any change in momentum of any energetic entity requires an exchange of energy. Energy is thus exchanged between photons in space and patterns of photons that comprise massive objects. This gravity mechanism demands that photons must lose energy as they move through empty space. Gravity as a refraction process was known by Sir Arthur Eddington.
The gold button on the left links to an excerpt from Eddington's paper published in 1920 where he explains the process.
A cosmos that consists solely of electromagnetic phenomena can not provide Black Holes. Those super massive objects we detect at galactic centers can not contain a gravitational singularity.
The reason that a gravitational singularity can never exist is that electric and magnetic amplitude of the E and B fields of photons saturate at a finite value. This saturation amplitude can never be exceeded. We know this because equations that solve for Planck's constant do not contain the amplitude of the E and B fields. If that amplitude were variable it would necessarily be part of the equations. The amplitude of the E and B fields are therefore constants.
Galaxies recycle the cosmos by collecting cosmic debris to produce stars and planets. Stars and planets tend toward galactic centers where they are gobbled up by a super massive ionic soup that spins at speeds near that of light. Strong electromagnetic fields generated by the spinning charged particles spew out debris. Positive ions and gamma radiation spew out perpendicular to the galactic plane in one direction. Negative ions, electrons, and gamma radiation spew out the direction opposite.
The spewed out gamma radiation interacts with ions and radiation in space to produce electrons, protons, and neutrons. The protons capture electrons by snapping the electron around itself so that the electron engulfs the proton. The shell of the electron consists of two saturated points of electromagnetic amplitude that spin at the speed of light to produce the shell. Hydrogen atoms are thus constantly created in space where they tend to gather in huge clouds. The Cosmos recycles itself by this process.
The fields of photons seem to extend outward forever through space. While the saturated points of photons move at the constant speed of light, the fields seem to instantly exist as far as they can be detected. We know of this instant nature of the fields because electric charge and gravity do not exhibit the phenomena of aberration.
Dr. Albrecht Giese
did the math to determine how much the spewed out radiation from galaxies would affect their rotational speed. Since gravity operates at phenomenal range, a sphere of at least a million light years around the galaxy must be taken into account. The amount of spewed out energy and matter that accumulated during this million years of time forms a gigantic gravity shield around the galaxy. The results of Dr. Giese's study indicated that the rotational speed of galaxies was consistent with observations without any consideration of such exotic stuff as dark matter or dark energy.
Message From Nick
I stumbled on your theory by trying to find an answer to the question, 'what is the max/min value of the electric field of a photon?' All I was able to calculate was the field intensity at a distance from a source emitting photons in all directions. This was just a measurement of the flux of photons/energy through a surface, but that did not explain what values the E (and B) field could reach for a single photon oscillating in free space.
Furthermore, I agree wholeheartedly with your postulate that all things in the universe reduce to light and the EM field.
Flux density of the E and B field of a photon has not been determined as far as I know. Robert Kemp attempted it in his, Quantization of the EM Change paper. Here are some things we suspect about the E and B values of photons.
The maximum E and B values of the photon field occur at two points in each photon represented by T2 and T4 in the schematic image to the left.
They are fundamental constants of nature related to Planck's constant.
They are the fundamental cause of Planck's constant and quantum phenomena.
The points are at the maximum possible value of the E and B field strength that space can support.
How you determined the outer/inner charge of each shell?
I believe, going from the innermost shell to the outermost (aside: I also think they should be numbered this way), that you have them going as follows: (-)+ (+)- (-)+ (+)- [note: the inner charge of each shell is in parenthesis ()]
Initially, I thought that was unstable, but then I realized this might give rise to the zero point energy, or, in other words, the constant jiggle that each atom always experiences. Furthermore, it seems that the alternating charge ratio is what initially attracts each shell together. Combine with pressure or high density, the separate shells become concentric. Did you choose this charge order, or did you arrive at it mathematically?
The charge order of the shells is determined by the positive charge of the proton. That begins the sequence for three shells.
In your theory, what is the difference between a neutron and a hydrogen atom?
I see from this image
that the electron radius is much larger than the 4th (outermost) shell of the neutron. But why is this? Why can't the outermost neutron shell take various values based on energy like the electron in the hydrogen atom?
I suspect that a positive ion has a greater propensity to become a hydrogen atom than a neutron because the electron is stable and a neutron's outer shell is not. A positive ion is not likely to encounter a neutron size shell in empty space.
Please tell me if I am understanding a proton's structure correctly.
I do not think I quite grasped the fact that all 3 shells in the proton are orbiting in a different direction until I saw this very confusing picture
Assuming your theory is correct (which is how much of my thought experiments begin lately), there are 3 photons trapped in resonant loops. For argument sake, assume they orbit on the specific planes I state.
The innermost shell, which has the smallest radius, highest energy, and accounting for 97.3% of the mass, rotates in the xy plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the z-axis.
The middle shell, accounting for 2.3% of the mass, orbits in the yz plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the x direction.
Finally, the protons outermost shell, contributing a mere 0.35% of the mass, is a photon orbiting in the xz plane. This causes a magnetic field/moment in/along the y direction.
Do I have this correct? Or is my understanding flawed. Does the orbit of the one shell determine the orbit of the next closest shell?
Hold the thought of the shell that contributes only 0.35% of the proton's mass. Without that shell the proton would be unstable and would release all its energy as gamma radiation.
I suspect that the proton has a definite structure based upon the dynamics of the fields but I am just guessing about what that structure is.
It should arrange itself so that the magnetic lines of force are complete between shells like the image to the left that I use as my avatar. So, yes, I suspect that the orbit of each shell interlocks with the fields of the next shell. Also, over the years I have come to suspect that the shells occupy the same plane so that the magnetic field lines can complete. The image above was from my early conjecture.
What is the charge of each shell, and does each subsequent shell shield the charges from all inner shells to the outside world? If so, how does this couple with the fact that each shell is orbiting along a different plane?
Before I realized that each shell is orbiting on a different plane, conceptually, it made sense that each shell had a charge that was cancelled by the next shell. But since they are on different planes, can you explain how this works?
Given the frequency/wavelength of the photon, and the radius of orbit (which is of course related), how can I find the surface charge?
I see that you reference the surface charge of each shell based on the mass and your square-of-shells data
But I do not see how I can calculate surface charge from that.
In other words, for the proton, it is known it has a charge of +1.6022E-19 C. Is this value, always measured from a radius greater than the outermost shell, the value of the outermost shell, or the value of the sum of the 3 shells?
I agree with you that it makes more sense that the shells occupy the same plane.
The charge value in the chart is the value at the radius of the shell.
The charge value of each shell is the charge value of an electron when sensed from any distance greater than an electron's radius. This is because sensed charge value decreases as the square of distance.
Furthermore, when you calculate the strong force by summing the contributions from the middle and outer proton shells for 2 protons (6.5+42.2+6.5+42.2=97.558), this confuses me because you should not experience the full force of the shell if it is penetrated, and the reverse side of the shell's charge must also contribute. I guess this is just a 1st order approximation.
I suspect that each shell experiences the force of the side of the shell next closest.
The force would be experienced as points of maximum amplitude passed each other in the dynamics of the bind. There is room for lots of work in this area. I haven't done much with the dynamics except to notice the strange dynamic that force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear.
What is the nature of the orbit of the neutron's outer shell? If the 3 shells of the proton occupy the xy, yz, and xz planes, what does that leave for the outer shell?
I suspect that the neutron occupies the same plane with the other shells and spins contrary to the outer shell of the proton so that magnetic lines of force are complete.
What is the justification for the square-of-shells rule, other than 'it works'?
In other words, what kind of physics principles or formulas would lead to such a rule? Another way to write it is s^2+s^4+s^8, where s=2.549920405. Perhaps this is some kind of multi-pole expansion or something. I was just wondering/hoping you had some justification for it.
I came up with the shells rule while contemplating the masses of sandwiched shells. I knew that the relationship between shell masses would necessarily be exponential in order to equate to proton and neutron mass. The first thing I tried was to start with the neutron's outer shell and square each subsequent shell.
If the electron is this fixed value and energy, and each shell is also fixed, how do the different energy levels of a hydrogen atom (or any atom really) fit into your theory? When a hydrogen atom is 1 quantum level above the ground state (1st excited state), what has happened? Has the shell structure of the proton changed? Has the radius of the electron changed? Where/how is the excess energy stored prior to it being released as a photon?
I have thought a lot about the dynamics of the energy levels of atoms but have not arrived at conclusions I am satisfied with. There are all kinds of possibilities. Several others who agree with the primary concept that all of nature is comprised of EM fields alone hold that the structure is much more complicated than I present.
We can show with mathematical certainty that this universe consists of electric and magnetic activity alone provided only that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light. His equations provide several solutions including one that uses only the electric and magnetic constants.
The gold button links to a Wikki link about impedance of free space. Notice the symbols are modified by sub zero. The sub zero means absent electric and magnetic charge.
According to Maxwell the electric and magnetic constants of space determine the impedance of space. The constants must be adjusted for the presence of charge such that the presence of electric and magnetic
charge increases impedance. The impedance of a local area of space determines the speed of light through that area. The path of light must bend toward greater impedance just as a car must swerve toward the side that hits an impeding puddle of water.
The gold bar on the left links to a web page where Dr. Albrecht Giese shows how objects whose mass derives mostly from electromagnetic
activity, as in quantum theory, must gravitate toward concentrations of electromagnetic activity. The gold bar on the right links to our gravity page where we show that objects whose mass derives completely from electromagnetic activity must gravitate toward increased electromagnetic activity.
Sir Author Eddington realized that refraction of light must contribute
as a source of gravity. Given that Maxwell got the equations right, this is a mathematical certainty. The gold bar links to an excerpt from Eddington's 1920 publication where he describes how refraction must contribute to gravity.
Physicists of the past provided us with two different theories of relativity. The Einstein version assumes variable space-time as the cause of relativity phenomena. The Lorentz version assumes variable matter and a special inertial frame of reference. Both use the Lorentz transformations to describe distortions in space and time as sensed between different inertial frames of reference.
The Lorentz version of relativity phenomena easily agrees with the electromagnetic contribution to gravity described above. The Einstein version requires much mathematical finagling but can agree. Philosophy suggests that the Lorentz version is probably the correct one.
Institutions of education accept Einstein's account of relativity over the Lorentz account. However, our GPS system must be adjusted for relativity phenomena using a special inertial frame of reference. For references search the terms GPS relativity adjustment.
The Lorentz version avoids problems like the
twin paradox that
Einstein's version can not easily solve.
When we accept the Lorentz version we arrive at the notion that physicists realized back then. At the turn of the twentieth century, most physicists realized that the final irreducible constituent of all
physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Another way of saying that is: All of nature behaves exactly as if all of nature is made of light.
If we accept the notion of conservation of energy, we see that
when gravity causes a change of momentum, the gravity source must
lose energy. We then expect that photons in space must lose energy
as things in space change momentum in response to the gravity they create.
We observe in space an inertial frame of reference that is observable
throughout the universe. Because it is observable throughout we can
call it a special frame. We observe that our Milky Way galaxy and all nearby galaxies move through this special frame at the rate of about five hundred miles per second toward the constellation Leo.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation consists of a very narrow
range of frequencies that we identify as Black Body radiation. The
frequency of Black Body radiation is determined by the temperature
of the entity emitting it. It seems to be the average temperature
of the universe.
Physicists have estimated this temperature for centuries. Eddington published his estimates in 1926. He considered two sources that would contribute. One was starlight from our local galaxy and the other was galactic light to warm intergalactic space. His estimates were very close to the measured temperature of the CMBR.
We have shown how Maxwell's equations demand that photons create
gravity. We found that Eddington showed how the equations of Maxwell demanded that photons create gravity. We showed that the Lorentz version explains all relativity phenomena in flat space-time and a universe made of light. All these facts lead to the conclusion that we live in
Now that we can show with mathematical certainty that this universe
is comprised solely of electromagnetic phenomena, it seems natural
that we should provide a version that can be tweeted on twitter.
Below are tweet sized sentences that explain the main facts of
the recent realizations.
The mathematical certainty comes from the fact that Maxwell's
equations can solve for the speed of light via electric permittivity
and magnetic permeability. The gold buttons link to detailed
Flat space-time in the classic sense provides relativity
phenomena in a universe made of light.
Light path bends toward greater impedance to provide gravity in a universe made of light.
Positive feedback and resonance trap photons in shell patterns
to provide matter in a universe made of light.
Three shells form sandwich structures to provide protons
in a universe made of light.
Four shells form sandwich structures to provide neutrons in
a universe made of light.
Charge on inside proton shells provides the strong force in a
universe made of light.
Outer shells trap inner shells inside to provide strong force
dynamics in a universe made of light.
Photonic gravity changes momentum of space entities to provide
red shift of photons in a universe made of light.
Arithmetic is a wonderful thing. With it we can logically
deduce things we can be certain about. We can know with certainty
that one and one is two. The arithmetic tells us so. We do not
Only slightly more complicated is the fact that gravity is
an electromagnetic phenomena
as shown in the gold-bar-linked paper.
This is a mathematical certainty given that Maxwell's equations
can solve for the speed of light.
Once we accept the paper's premise that gravity is a simple process
of refraction of light, we can find
the cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.
As shown in the gold-bar link, when a force applied to any entity
causes that entity to change momentum, work is done. Work requires
energy. Energy is conserved. When gravity from a photon causes any
entity to change momentum, that photon must give up energy. A photon
gives up energy by shifting its wavelength toward the red end of the
So that wonderful tool, arithmetic, gives us the fundamental cause
of gravity and the fundamental cause of the red shift in light from
Since 1986 I have argued against the notion that nature's
forces are conveyed by particle exchange. Although that notion
is accepted by all institutions of higher learning, there has been
no experimental evidence that it is real. All experimental evidence
supports the opposing notion that the final irreducible constituent
of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Stated
another way, all experimental evidence still supports the
notion that everything is made of light.
There is a huge problem with that second notion. A universe so
comprised is very restrictive. Most things we can imagine are
This includes just about every established theory. What is
possible, however, is everything we can see, feel, and measure.
As indicated in the gold-bar-linked paper, relativity phenomena,
gravity, and the nuclear forces are predicted and demanded
in a universe comprised solely of light.
Physicists are aware of this. The real importance of the Large
Hadron Collider was to discover evidence that supports the Standard
Model of Quantum Theory and so discredit the idea that everything
is made of light. So far all evidence from the LHC supports the
A universe made of light demands flat space-time in order to
predict relativity phenomena and gravity. Classic flat space-time
does not stretch. Some version of Tired Light must cause photons
to lose energy as they age. We have a version that does just that.
Contrary to popular belief, it is the photon that creates and
responds to gravity. In the paper linked by the gold bar
Dr. Albrecht Giese
shows that it is a mathematical certainty that gravity is
an electromagnetic phenomena. Although Dr.Giese has not yet
abandoned quantum theory, he has realized that all material
things must have as their most elemental constituent
particles without mass that move at the invariant speed of light.
The photon we describe fits the requirements of the most elemental
constituent that Dr. Giese needs. Our photon is comprised of two
points of saturated electric and magnetic amplitude that always
moves through space at the invariant speed of light. When trapped
in a pattern to form an electron, the two points provide the spin
one half characteristic that is observed.
When a force changes the momentum of any object, work is done. Energy
is exchanged where one entity loses energy and another entity gains
energy. Photons create gravity. Gravity changes the momentum of
massive objects. Photons must give up energy when the gravity
created by them changes the momentum of an object. As a result
Photons must loose energy as they age.
The intent of this paper was to begin a description of the universe
comprised of twiter tweet sized paragraphs. Although
somewhat incomplte, the paragraph below is one of the tweets.
Super Massive Objects eat matter and radiate beams perpendicular
to spin plane. Beams congeal. Cycle repeats forever.
Faster Than Light
In the universe we describe here, spatially extended fields drive points of
electric and magnetic saturation through space at the speed of light.
The fields look like waves.
The points look like particles. This gives us the classic photon
of the twentieth century.
Amplitude change at any place in the extended fields affects the
trajectory of the points. This means that communication about the
amplitude change in the extended fields reaches the points faster
than the speed of the points. Experimental tests
with entangled photons suggest that this communication
may be instantaneous.
Physicists speculate that it is not possible to convey information
faster than light speed. However, we see here an example of
information about amplitude change in photon fields reaching
photon points faster than light speed. The speculation must not
be what is real.
In the web page linked by the left gold button,
Dr. Albrecht Giese
proves beyond doubt that gravity is an electromagnetic process.
The spatially extended fields of electric and magnetic
change affect the impedance of space.
The path of light bends
toward greater impedance just as the path of a car swerves toward
an impeding puddle of water. All established theories about the
construct of matter have it comprised mostly of electric and
magnetic activity. So comprised, matter must gravitate.
If we could find some way to observe minute vibrations in
the saturated points of photons, we might could use that to
convey information. We can not observe loose photons, but we
can observe photons trapped in patterns. An electron is such
We can speculate that there may be some way to observe the
minute vibrations of electrons that respond to entangled partners
and so speed communications.
That is pure speculation, but it is the kind of speculation that
might lead to a great discovery. We might find a new form of
communication used by other inhabitants of the universe.
A Photonic Universe
of all physical realty must be the
electromagnetic field. Relativity phenomena then develops naturally.
The Lorentz transformations apply to show
how matter and even time itself
must distort with movement.
All of physical reality is related to the speed of light in just
a certain way because all of physical reality is made of light.
There must be a special inertial frame that is at rest in space.
This is a necessity that allows relativity phenomena
to develop naturally. There is such a frame of reference that we
can detect. It is the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
So far as anyone can determine it is the same throughout the universe.
The presence of electric and magnetic activity in an area impedes
additional electric and magnetic activity. This impedance of space
was known before the turn of the twentieth century.
Maxwell showed that two properties of space contributed to the impedance
of space and determined the speed of light as in the equation to the left.
The speed of light is slower in a field of gravity. That being so, then
the impedance of space must be greater toward massive objects. That
alone must produce the distortion we notice when light passes massive
objects. There is no need for space to warp.
The path of light bends toward greater impedance just as the path of a
car swerves toward an obstructing puddle.
Matter, comprised of electric and magnetic activity, spews remnant
fields out through space. The electric and magnetic amplitude of
the fields diminish as the square of distance. This causes
the impedance of space to increase toward massive objects.
Material things that contain electromagnetic activity must gravitate toward massive objects. This is true what ever fundamental theory
used. All established theories consider that most of the mass of
objects results from electromagnetic activity in the objects. We suspect
that all the mass of objects result from that activity.
We suspect that because the arithmetic breaks down otherwise.
I will describe here a basic flat space-time universe that no test yet
devised can distinguish from the universe in which we live. Yet, this
universe I describe will be so restrictive that it will not permit most
established theories to be real.
This universe is built from electric
and magnetic amplitude change and nothing else. No material thing that does not reduce to electric and magnetic amplitude change can exist in this
Time is a measure of the change in electric and magnetic amplitude.
One second worth of time is a certain count of repetitions of a pattern
in a cesium atom.
In this universe I describe, the most elemental
components of atoms must move at the invariant speed of light. The
speed of light in this universe is invariant with respect to a special
inertial frame, that of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
This universe has existed much as it now exists for a time longer than
any measure we might devise. It is a stable churning mass of energy and
particles made of that energy.
Galaxies gobble up clumps of matter and
swirl the clumps toward their centers. At each galactic center a Super
Massive Object digests matter and energy to produce bursts of gamma ray
energy that spews out perpendicular to the galactic plane.
The Super Massive Objects are not Black Holes. Black Holes can not
exist in this universe. The reason Black Holes can not exist is that
Gravity is itself electromagnetic radiation.
Gravity happens because the impedance of space depends upon the amount
of electric and magnetic activity present. This was known in Maxwell's
time and is built into his equations. The more activity, the more
impedance. The more impedance, the slower the speed of light.
the speed of light, the slower time progresses and the path of light
must bend toward the slower direction. Comprised of light, material
things must gravitate toward the direction that the speed of light
This provides all the
things we observe about gravity.
All relativity phenomena comes about because of the restrictive construct
The most elemental components of all material things must always move
at the invariant speed of light. So, when the material thing itself
moves relative to the special fixed frame that is at rest in space,
the material thing must distort to keep the internal patterns in place.
The experience of time by the material object must also change because
patterns must repeat more slowly. The patterns must repeat more
slowly because their innards must move through greater distances
to repeat their patterns.
Electric Charge happens when gamma ray photons interfere with each other
to such an extent that one wave length cycles get trapped in a resonant
The charge emits from the circumference of the bend in the photon's
The changing amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields that comprise the photon occupy more area on the outside of the bend than on the inside.
The outside area can not be completely canceled by the opposite charge on
the inside of the bend.
The ratio of the inside charge to the outside charge is related to the
fine structure constant. Be the first to put numbers to this relationship
and make a name for yourself.
A Fundamental Theory
Relativity phenomena and gravity are all-invasive parts of all
material things. They must therefore be present at the
most fundamental beginnings of nature's construct. We
know how to describe nature to make this so. When we
describe nature in this certain way, relativity phenomena and gravity
are predicted and indeed, demanded by nature's construct.
We know of no other way to describe the most fundamental
constituents of nature so that relativity phenomena and gravity are
a natural consequence of nature's construct.
All other experimentally verifiable natural phenomena are predicted.
These include all the forces of nature
and the strong force dynamics.
In order to demand relativity phenomena and gravity every physical
reality in the universe must be comprised of electromagnetic
fields. It must be comprised of that alone. Adding any other
constituent breaks the arithmetic so that all natural phenomena
are no longer predicted.
We have known since Lorentz described it for us that relativity
phenomena is a natural result when we consider that all of nature
is comprised of electromagnetic phenomena alone.
Unification of the forces
was easily accomplished within this construct of nature.
There are two properties of space that predict
and demand gravity in an electromagnetic universe.
Maxwell showed us that the two properties of empty space determine the speed
of light. They were called electric permittivity and magnetic permeability
in Maxwell's time.
These constants convey gravity as indicated in the link.
Any fundamental theory that fails to demand relativity
phenomena and gravity at its very core, can not be what is real in
nature. The reason it can not be real is that we easily
observe that relativity phenomena and gravity are real and they are
present in every physical reality that we know about.
that this is so is overwhelming. There is no experimental evidence that it
is not so. Yet, just about every established theory can not possibly be
real given this construct of nature.
The sad thing is that we waste so much effort exploring ideas that can not
possibly represent reality that we miss the obvious great improvements. The
Quark Stripper has the potential to provide small compact power sources that
could run individual households and cars for years on one drop of liquid