Vernon Brown

The idea that the universe burst forth from nothing is among the most absurd fantasies yet created by mankind. The natural way that nature works does not permit such a thing. Yet, we dispense with the natural laws of nature and accept the notion anyway. The danger of notions such as this is that they intefere with and prevent a better understanding of the true nature of the universe.

Early in the 1900's Edwin Hubble discovered that there was a direct relationship between a red shift in the light spectrum of stars and their distance from the observer. Through the 1920's Hubble struggled to pinpoint the exact relationship between this red shift and distance. Hubble published articles and lectured frequently about the progress of his work.

Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian Catholic priest, pounced upon Hubble's publications and postulated the big-bang account of creation in 1927. He described an expanding universe that originated in an enormous explosion and cited the works of Edwin Hubble and Willem de Sitter as evidence. With one stroke of genius, Lemaitre upstaged the scientists and united religious creation with the latest scientific observations of his day.

Milton La Salle Humason began working at the Mount Wilson Observatory as a mule driver in the early 1900's during the time that Edwin Hubble did research there. Humason advanced in status through dedication to hard work and began doing telescope observations for Hubble's use. While he worked with Hubble, Humason became a student of Lemaitre's work and began advocating Lemaitre's account of creation.

Hubble pointed out that contrary to Lemaitre's ideas, the red shift was probably not due to the Doppler effect. If it were, he maintained, a projection of the present observations into the past would place all observable mass in one spot about 2.5 billion years in the past. This was much too little time to be compatible with other observations.

One of the main objections Hubble had to the big-bang theory came from his study of the brightness of certain stars. He maintained that if stars were receding at the rate indicated by their red shift their brightness should seem diminished. He observed that there was no such diminishing of brightness.

When Hubble died on Sept. 28, 1953, Humason was loosed from Hubble's leash. He worked ardently with several others and by 1956 they had worked some magic and changed Hubble's constant by an order of magnitude to make it compatible with the big-bang theory.

Hubble based the original value of Hubble's constant upon scientific analysis. He measured distances to stars by several means and then compared their red shift with these distances. He arrived at a value of 500. Big bangers changed this value to, "somewhere around 35 but certainly less than 50," to prevent conflict with the big-bang version of creation.

When one uses a value of 50 for Hubble's constant the distance to several galaxies discovered recently turns out to be 27 billion light years. Hubble's original value of 500 would put them at 270 billion light years. It is very strange that this number keeps changing with each new discovery.

Humason advanced in stature with the acceptance of the big-bang theory and finally became secretary of the Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories. Until his death on June 18, 1972, Humason continued to support the big-bang theory over all other accounts of creation. Supporters of the big-bang theory had easy access to the observational instruments controlled by Humason; opponents of the big bang did not.

While he lived and was of sound mind, Hubble approached the big-bang theory scientifically. He saw that the only evidence directly supporting it was the observed red shift. He concluded that this red shift could not be due to the Doppler effect because other observations conflicted with that idea. But Hubble began losing his memory in his early fifties and was never able to show the cause of the red shift. After his death most scientists gradually accepted that Hubble's red shift was caused by the Doppler effect.

The Steady-State theory was proposed by Thomas Gold, Herman Bondi, and Fred Hoyle in 1948. They advocated that the universe had existed in a steady state forever. It was expanding, they suggested, but its density remained constant because new mass was continuously created. They calculated the amount of new mass that must be created to replace receding galaxies and found it to be about one hydrogen atom per cubic mile each year.

Gamma ray photons from galaxies must interact to form electrons in space just as they do in laboratories on earth. It does not take a genius to see that the amount could easily be one atom per cubic mile per year, but much less would actually be required if the universe were not really expanding. It is very possible that light moving through space continuously shifts toward a less energetic state--red shift. We know very well that light does this in the Compton effect where a photon bounces off an electron and loses energy.

Sir Fred Hoyle's fame came mainly from his work in showing that recycled stars could produce all the elements found in nature. He showed in detail how atomic reactions would proceed from the element hydrogen all the way through to the heaviest elements known. He proved that there was no need for a big bang to explain how nature formed the heavy elements.

The Photonics Universe is a non-expanding natural orderly system that has existed forever.

According to photon theory the universe is an electromagnetic structure comprised only of photons. These photons exist free in space where they are observed as light, and they also exist in phase-locked patterns, where they are observed as mass.

When electrons and positrons collide they produce gamma- ray photons. These photons may interfere with each other and become phase-locked in patterns. They then become electrons and positrons again.

When such collisions occur at very great speed, photon flux of the collisions produce protons and neutrons. Neutrons are unstable by themselves in space, and decay to become electrons and protons in a few seconds. Protons produced in electron-positron collisions collect electrons and become hydrogen atoms in accordance with the rules of Quantum Electrodynamics.

Protons formed out of electron-positron collision debris collect electrons to become hydrogen atoms and migrate toward each other, attracted by their gravity. These atoms gather in huge clouds and move toward other concentrations of mass. Currents and eddies form in the clouds, causing lumps to accumulate. In the lumps pressure builds to atomic fury fusing hydrogen atoms into helium. A star is thus born.

Billions of stars gather to produce galaxies most of which are about a hundred thousand light years in diameter. Stars in the galaxy age and die in explosions creating the heavy elements by the process that Sir Fred Hoyle discovered. Burnt-out stars gravitate toward the center of the galaxy.

All mass in the Photonics universe gravitates toward the center of the closest galaxy. Stars in the galaxy churn the mass into increasingly heavier elements through atomic fusion. Fission and fusion reactions continue as stars recycle their mass through birth and death. Mass becomes light in star-rich galaxies and they spew photons outward into space.

Photons and some small particles contain enough energy to escape the galaxy. Others without enough energy to escape churn through the process again and again until all mass eventually becomes light; all light eventually becomes mass, and the cycle continues throughout the life of the galaxy.

Photons and small particles that escape the galaxy gravitate toward concentrations of mass. These repeat the cycle as they become part of another huge cloud of debris and the process goes on and on.

Halton Arp of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich, Germany wrote in a letter published in the July 27, 1991 issue of the AAAS publication, Science, "They [big-bangers] overlook observational facts that have been piling up for 25 years and that have now become overwhelming. Of course, if one ignores contradictory observations, one can claim to have an 'elegant' or 'robust' theory. But, it isn't science."

Recent observations have turned up several new classes of objects that violate the big-bang's most basic assumption. Many are too distant to fit the big-bang age of the universe of about 20 billion years. Others show that the universe is structured with vast ribbons of galaxies that could not have reasonably formed in less than about 200 billion years. But, of course, Big Bangers abandoned reasonableness as a test for reality long ago when Hubble's scientific observations were changed by more than an order of magnitude to make them fit the big-bang dogma.

Most scientists agree that the milky-way galaxy and the solar system are now evolving. Some put the solar system about midway through its life, others a little younger. Its farthest rocky planet, Mars, seems to have cooled through a time of water-rich life and now its second farthest, Earth, blossoms. In the future, Earth should cool to be like Mars and Venus should cool to become the planet where water-rich life evolves.

Those who believe that nature is controlled by an all-powerful deity may consider that photons are the thoughts of God. Since this idea can not possibly be proven false, it can not be scientific. This is a condition the idea shares with all religions, none of which are based upon true scientific thought. Philosophers reason that only science must obey the rules of science, religious ideas must be tested with their own rules.

If photons were the thoughts of God, all of nature would be at His whim. And, since His thoughts are the universe, man can only know one God.

Photon theory is therefore consistent with religious beliefs. It does not insist upon them, but it also does not condemn them or ban religious thought. It is not secular, all religions can fit within its structure. In fact, photon theory provides a reasonable way for believers to conceive of a true deity and hold that deity to be all powerful in nature.

Recent discoveries at the University of Maryland show that single photons trapped in resonant cavities behave just like the most elementary particles of mass. They possess electrical charge and inertia, and all other properties of mass that scientists can measure. They even exhibit the relativistic distortion that all other massive objects exhibit when scientists subject them to rapid motion.

All these things indicate that some form of photon theory will dominate the physics of the 21st century. Students of science see it easily, but old scientists ignore its obvious reality. Max Planck pointed out that this is the normal way of scientific processes. New ideas must wait for the old keepers of the faith to die before they are accepted, but just as surely as death must come to the old, these new concepts will see their day in the sun.