414 Last modified August 22, 2016

The Strong Nuclear Force

Given the notion that the electromagnetic field in all its forms comprise the totality of the universe, as described in the gold-button links, we can find the strong nuclear interaction within that concept.

Consider the construct of the elementary particles as phase-locked patterns of looping photons. The most simple of the particles is the electron. We can start with that and calculate the value of a strong electromagnetic force that is about a hundred times stronger than the force of an electron.

The static electric charge of an electron radiates outward from the circumference of the electron. This pattern is formed by a lone photon trapped

Shell masses and sizes as calculated by the Square of the Shells rule.

The strength of the electric charge in units of electron force is the same as the mass in units of electron mass. Smaller shells have greater charge amplitude at their circumference. However when seen from a distance, amplitude, diminished as the inverse square of radius, measures to be exactly equal to the charge of an electron.

in an electromagnetic cavity produced by its own bent path. The strength of the charge is greatest at the surface of the sphere and diminishes as the square of distance away from the surface.

Any photon in a resonant cavity radiates this static charge. The measure of the strength of the charge is a constant because the electromagnetic saturation amplitude of photons is a constant. The circumference of the electron is determined by the wavelength of the photon that comprises it. Since the charge amplitude diminishes as the square of distance, the charge amplitude is at its maximum value at the electron's surface.

Since the photon completes one turn around the circumference in one wave length, the same half cycle polarity is toward the outside of the turn all the way around. In the case of the electron it is the negative electric field that is toward the outside all the way around. The positive field is on the inside of the shell.

We can consider the static electric force at the electron's surface as one unit. We know that the strong nuclear force would then be about a hundred units. The strong nuclear force shows up as the sum of two of shells two and two of shells three.

The static electric charge at the surface of a proton is greater than that of an electron because the proton is smaller. The proton's surface charge is 6.5 electrons units. But since the measured value diminishes as the square of distance, the proton's electric charge is exactly equal to that of an electron when seen at the distance of an electron's radius.

The same polarity of the electric field is toward the outside all the way around the circumference. This is because the field polarity reversal is governed by the same sine function that creates a circle.

We can calculate the strength of the force at the proton's surface with a simple square-of-the-shells rule using the neutron's outer shell as a starting point. This charge strength is directly related to the massiveness of the shells because the more massive the shell, the smaller its radius and the smaller its radius the greater the surface charge.

The neutron is 2.5499 electrons more massive than a proton. The neutron's outer shell must contain this amount of mass. Using the square of the shell rule we calculate that the proton's outer shell is 6.5 and the proton's next shell in is 42.2 all in units of electron mass and surface charge. According to the rule, these three shells provide the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force.

Neutron-Proton bond Proton-Proton bond

When two protons are forced together so that shells 3 of each merging proton punch through shell 2 of the other there are four charge values in play. The sum of those four charge values is equal to the strong nuclear force.

The strong force dynamics happen because the smaller, more massive, shells 3 and 4 are inside the larger shells 2. The force that holds the bond seems to increase with distance until the outside shells are penetrated, then seems to disappear.

To see how this develops consider the electrostatic forces of shells two and three. Proton Image As the inside shells merge through the outside shells there are four forces in close proximity. The sum of the charge values of these four shells equals the force value of the strong nuclear interaction.

The proton shells 3 must overcome like charges on the inside of shells 2. So we have shell 2 plus shell 3 plus shell 2 plus shell 3 forces. This is 6.5 + 42.2 + 6.5 + 42.2. When we extend the decimal and sum this we have 97.558 electron forces.

We have found the strong nuclear force but this is just an approximation. There are many dynamics involved that are not considered here. They would all come into play in the evolution of a final value.