# Square-Of-The-Shells Rule

by
Vernon Brown
June 21, 2008

By November 5th 1991 I had concluded that the advocates of a completely electromagnetic universe were probably correct. Quantum Mechanics, admittedly the most successful theory yet conceived, was non-the-less wrong at its philosophical foundation. All of the elementary particles were simple constructs of electromagnetic energy.

At first I thought I had stumbled upon some great truth, but then after several years researching the old texts and documents squirreled away by scientists of the early 20th century, I saw that this was an old idea. I saw mention in some of Einstein's published memos that James Clerk Maxwell, Lorentz, and Poincare worked on that assumption, leading to The Lorentz_ether_theory

These great men worked out the details of just how matter so constructed must behave when subjected to motion. Being constructed entirely of light, any particle of matter would need to distort when in motion because of the invariant speed of light. The equations for this distortion are called the Lorentz Transformations. The distortion itself is called Relativity Phenomena. This phenomena is now well known and proven beyond any reasonable doubt.

But the phenomena of Relativity and the Theory of Relativity are very different things. Einstein's Theory of Relativity is his attempt to explain the cause of Relativity Phenomena. But if the cause of relativity phenomena is the invariant speed of light in a universe comprised of light then Einstein's reasoning must be wrong. There can not be two separate causes for relativity phenomena and we know with mathematical certainty that the invariant speed of light must cause that phenomena.

Variable space-time could not exist in a universe in which Relativity Phenomena is accounted for by the distortion of matter due to the fixed speed of light. For this to happen, the speed of light must be fixed in a special frame of reference that is at rest in space. The invariant speed of light as measured when in motion is the result of the distortion of matter as it moves just as worked out by Lorentz, Poincare, and others. This was all well settled before Einstein published the Special Theory of Relativity.

Arithmetic shows that all of relativity phenomena is due to the distortion of matter. There is nothing left over that could be attributed to variable space-time. And even if there was, how would it be proportioned between the two causes. That was the reasoning I finally came down to. As unlikely as it was that anyone would ever entertain the thought, the great Einstein was wrong about Relativity.

Lorentz, Poincare and others had the correct notion. They worked out most of the details but they didn't get to the final answer of just exactly how the electromagnetic field could be the only real thing that exists in the universe. They didn't figure out how everything in the universe could be composed of photons alone. They didn't know about photons. They didn't know that all electromagnetic fields exist as saturated points of electric and magnetic amplitude surrounded by their fields of diminishing amplitude that extend outward forever.

I knew of that construct. I knew about photons. I had worked a lifetime playing with them in all their manifestations. I had read and re-read and understood and re-understood "Fundamentals of Photonics" by Bahaa E. A. Saleh and Malvin Carl Teich published by John Wiley & Sons Inc. So maybe I might be able to contribute in some small way to the work of Maxwell and Lorentz.

On that day of November 5th 1991, I wrote a simple graphics computer program for a photon model of the wave construct. That construct was my understanding of the photon that was thoroughly described in the 961 page book "Fundamentals of Photonics", mentioned earlier.

When I ran the computer program I was surprised to see that the photon, when bent into a circle, always kept the same polarity on the outside of the bend. It could be either positive or negative, depending upon the half cycle that started the bend, but it was always one or the other.

Screen shot of the current animated neutron program:

The hash marks represent electric charge amplitude and polarity. Blue is negative and red is positive. The charge amplitude completes one cycle during one wave length. This causes the same polarity to remain on the outside of the pattern all the way around the loop. Peak amplitude rotates around the loop at the speed of light. In the program this rotation is counter-clockwise. In real life, the rotation could be either way and there would probably be a composite flat-wise rotation of the pattern.

This was proof to me that nuclear particles could be constructed of electromagnetic fields alone. I set about to construct them. At first came the electron. It would be the largest of the particles. I wrote another little program to see how a proton and neutron might be composed of these curled up photons.

Download via the link, or simply copy and paste the source code below for the Square-of-the-Shells calculator. It is written in ANSII compliant C code and will compile with the Open Source C compiler that ships with Fedora 9 Linux. The latest Windows compilers should also work.

The numbers worked out to be really close to the published mass values for the mass of the Proton and the Neutron. And then, another realization came to me. The force of the charge of an electron's field originates at the electron's circumference. The closer to the electron, the greater the force of the charge. At the circumference of the electron, the force of the charge would be the maximum it could ever be for an electron. But what about the inner shells? The force of their charge would behave the same as that of an electron. The force of the charge of the inner shells would be at its greatest at the circumference of the inner shells.

The simple computer program source code:
The Program Itself

It made sense that the force of the inner shells would have to follow the same Square-of-the-Shells rule. If that were so, the force at the circumference of the Neutron's outer shell would be 2.54 times as great as the force at an electron's circumference. The force at a proton's outer shell circumference would be 6.50 times as great as the force at an electron's circumference. The next shell, the proton's middle shell, would exert a force 42.27 times as great as that at an electron's circumference.

But if that is so, why aren't these forces ever seen? Well, just think about it. The force felt at any distance away from the circumference of any shell, diminishes as the square of distance away. It works out that the force of any of the shells, when felt at any distance greater than the circumference of an electron is exactly the same as the force of the electron.

So, what we have found here, my friends, is the source of the Strong Nuclear Interaction. It is simply the electric force felt at the circumference of the inner particle shells.

When two protons merge together so that the outer shells of each pass through the middle shells of the other, shells 3 and 4 of each move inside shells 2 of the other. Once inside, the shells face unlike charges in all directions. The inner shells find equilibrium in their new confinement and the nucleons are bound together.

The two outer shells contribute 6.50 each and the two middle shells contribute 42.27 electron forces each. The sum of those four values provides the value of the strong nuclear interaction.