301 Last modified August 22, 2016

Shell Dynamics
In The Electromagnetic Universe

Vernon Brown

Two protons can smash together with such force that their outside shells pass through each other until the middle shells of each are trapped inside the negative inside layer of the outside shells. The negative outside layor of Shell Three of each, repels the negative inside layor of Shell Two of each; this is the strong nuclear force that binds nuclear particles.

This Shell One is the outside shell of the Neutron. Without this shell, the Neutron becomes a proton. The strength of the electric charge at the circumference of this shell is about 2.5 times as strong as the strength of the electric charge at the electron's electromagnetic circumference. Seen from the outside, the charge of this outer shell of the neutron is negative. Seen from the inside, it is positive.

Inner shells trapped inside provide the strange dynamics of the strong nuclear force. The force seems to increase with distance at first when the nucleus comes apart. The force increase comes from like charges that face off and must pass through each other.

We have made computer models of Hofstadter's Shells. Using the C++ programming language, we made a class structure for Electrons, Neutrons, and Protons. We do not have the movement Methods for the classes but we know such Methods are possible. We know the characteristics of the Methods from what Nature itself shows us.

They are such that two shell structures of the proton class will merge together and become bound by a strong force. At first we thought this strong force was outside the realm of the electromagnetic force. Then we realized that the electric and the magnetic forces exhibited by the electron are the weakest naturally occurring electric and magnetic forces in nature.

This is because the electromagnetic (classic) circumference of the electron is related to its wave length. In Electromagnetic fields, shorter wave lengths have higher energy. The electron's force is the weakest of all the shells because its electromagnetic circumference the greatest of all the particle shells.

The electron's electromagnetic circumference is the largest of all the particles, so its electric force is the weakest. When we normalize so that the electron's force is one, the other forces follow the square-of-the-shells rule. The source of the strong nuclear force then becomes obvious. It is the electric force of shell 2 and shell 3 of the proton. The neutron's outer shell may also contribute.

Source Code
for the Square The Shells calculator.

We suspect that the electromagnetic patterns that form protons behave much as do the electromagnetic patterns in high q cavities. In such cavities, the electric field amplitude is always zero at the wall of the cavity. The field completes its sine wave amplitude dynamics as it transitions from wall to wall. The electric field amplitude of a proton must complete its sine wave transition as it bends around its circumference. The dynamics of this are such that the positive electric field of the photon that comprises the outside shell remains on the outside all the way around.

There might be any number of ways such particles could merge together to form open chains, or closed chains, or just large globs. Once known, this field is bound to yield much new discovery.

The small red dot at the center of the inside circle is Shell Four. Most of the mass of the proton is in this small dot. It is the smallest shell and so has the highest frequency. Frequency is just another way of saying the rate of change of the electric and magnetic amplitude of the fields that make up the shell. So now we know what mass is.

The dynamics of the shell structure of protons tells us that mass is simply that dynamic. Mass is the change in amplitude of electric and magnetic fields. Stated more simply, mass is electromagnetic change. The amount of mass present at any place is the amount of electromagnetic change there. We have known the equation for more than a hundred years now. The equation is m = hv where m is mass; h is Planck's constant; and v is the rate of change of electric and magnetic fields, stated as frequency.