Last modified August 22, 2016
In The Electromagnetic Universe
Two protons can smash together with such force that their outside
shells pass through each other until the middle shells of each are
trapped inside the negative inside layer of the outside shells. The
negative outside layor of Shell Three of each, repels the negative
inside layor of Shell Two of each; this is the strong nuclear force
that binds nuclear particles.
This Shell One is the outside shell of the Neutron. Without this shell,
the Neutron becomes a proton. The strength of the electric charge at the
circumference of this shell is about 2.5 times as strong as the strength
of the electric charge at the electron's electromagnetic circumference.
Seen from the outside, the charge of this outer shell of the neutron is
negative. Seen from the inside, it is positive.
Inner shells trapped inside provide the strange dynamics of the strong
nuclear force. The force seems to increase with distance at first when
the nucleus comes apart. The force increase comes from like charges
that face off and must pass through each other.
We have made computer models of Hofstadter's Shells. Using the C++ programming
language, we made a class structure for Electrons, Neutrons, and Protons. We
do not have the movement Methods for the classes but we know such Methods
are possible. We know the characteristics of the Methods from what Nature
itself shows us.
They are such that two shell structures of the proton class will merge
together and become bound by a strong force. At first we thought this
strong force was outside the realm of the electromagnetic force. Then we
realized that the electric and the magnetic forces exhibited by the electron
are the weakest naturally occurring electric and magnetic forces in nature.
This is because the electromagnetic (classic) circumference of the electron
is related to its wave length. In Electromagnetic fields, shorter wave lengths
have higher energy.
The electron's force is the weakest of all the shells
because its electromagnetic circumference the greatest of all the particle
The electron's electromagnetic circumference is the largest of all the
particles, so its electric force is the weakest. When we normalize so that
force is one, the other forces follow the square-of-the-shells rule. The
source of the strong nuclear force then becomes obvious. It is the electric force of shell 2 and shell
3 of the proton. The neutron's outer shell may also contribute.
We suspect that the electromagnetic patterns that form protons behave much as
do the electromagnetic patterns in high q cavities. In such cavities, the
electric field amplitude is always zero at the wall of the cavity. The field
completes its sine wave amplitude dynamics as it transitions from wall to
wall. The electric field amplitude of a proton must complete its sine wave
transition as it bends around its circumference. The dynamics of this are such
that the positive electric field of the photon that comprises the outside shell
remains on the outside all the way around.
There might be any number of ways such particles could merge together
to form open chains, or closed chains, or just large globs. Once known,
this field is bound to yield much new discovery.
The small red dot at the center of the inside circle is Shell Four. Most
of the mass of the proton is in this small dot. It is the smallest shell
and so has the highest frequency. Frequency is just another way of saying
the rate of change of the electric and magnetic amplitude of the fields
that make up the shell. So now we know what mass is.
The dynamics of the shell structure of protons tells us that mass is simply
that dynamic. Mass is the change in amplitude of electric and magnetic fields.
Stated more simply, mass is electromagnetic change. The amount of mass present
at any place is the amount of electromagnetic change there. We have known the
equation for more than a hundred years now. The equation is m = hv where m
is mass; h is Planck's constant; and v is the rate of change of electric
and magnetic fields, stated as frequency.