# Red Shift

Arithmetic is a wonderful thing. With it we can logically deduce things we can be certain about. We can know with certainty that one and one is two. The arithmetic tells us so. We do not doubt it.

Only slightly more complicated is the fact that gravity is an electromagnetic phenomena as shown in the gold-bar-linked paper. This is a mathematical certainty given that Maxwell's equations can solve for the speed of light.

Once we accept the paper's premise that gravity is a simple process of refraction of light, we can find the cause of the red shift in light from distant galaxies.

As shown in the gold-bar link, when a force applied to any entity causes that entity to change momentum, work is done. Work requires energy. Energy is conserved. When gravity from a photon causes any entity to change momentum, that photon must give up energy. A photon gives up energy by shifting its frequency toward the red.

So that wonderful tool, arithmetic, gives us the fundamental cause of gravity and the red shift in light from distant galaxies. It also shows us without doubt that gravity itself impedes gravity. Although the arithmetic demands it, this concept is not yet realized by physicists.

Exactly how does gravity impede gravity? This comes from the first mathematical certainty that gravity slows the speed of light. Since the so-called constants of space determine the speed of light as per the above equation, and the speed of light slows in gravity, gravity must affect the constants to slow the speed of light. Anyone familiar with electromagnetic systems will notice that this circular process is a form of negative feedback. So gravity provides negative feedback for gravity. Said more simply, gravity impedes gravity.