235 Last modified September 01, 2016

Square-Of-The-Shells Rule.

by
Vernon Brown

Some History

The Square-of-the-Shells rule develops a shell structure for nuclear particles and shows a mechanism within the structure that can account for the strong and the weak nuclear interactions. These interactions are shown to be electromagnetic. They result from the dynamics of the two outer shells of the proton and the three outer shells of the neutron. When the particles partially merge these shells come in close proximity with each other. The sum of the charges on the shells equates to the value of the strong nuclear interaction.

Doctor Robert Hofstadter of Stanford found that a simple shell structure for nuclear particles could account for the hadron spectra that he observed. He won the Nobel prize in physics for describing the structure of nuclear particles. But such a structure is at odds with Quantum Chromdynamics and so was never given much attention. When we revisit doctor Hofstadter's work and give it more attention we see some interesting things. We find that a simple rule can describe a shell structure that predicts the dynamics of the strong nuclear forces. The rule is that nuclear particles are comprised of sandwiched electromagnetic shells such that each successive shell mass is the square of the mass of the next shell out. The force of charge on each shell follows the same rule.
The Square of the Shells begins with a shell of electromagnetic energy that is 2.549920405 times as massive as an electron. It is comprised of a single photon trapped in a shell such that it completes one wave length as it traverses the circumference of the shell. Since it completes one wave length as it completes a circle, the sine-governed positive to negative swing operates within the sine-governed circle such that the same polarity of the photon's charge remains on the outside of the circle all the way around. This is the outer shell of the neutron. It is curled around such that its negative field is toward the outside. This outer shell is the only difference between a proton and a neutron. We call this Shell One.
We can build four shells like this one. The mass of each shell increases toward the center. Shell Two is the proton's outer shell and the neutron's next-to-outer shell. Its mass is the square of that of Shell One or 6.50209 electron masses. Its energy is also 6.50209 times that of an electron. The strength of the electric charge at the Shell Two circumference is also 6.50209 times the strength of the electric charge at the circumference of an electron. Note that the circumference of the electron is greater. When the strength of the Shell Two charge is felt from the distance of the electron's radius it is exactly that of the electron.
We square the mass of Shell Two to get the mass of Shell Three. Shell Three is 42.27723 times as massive as an electron. The strength of the electric charge at its circumference is 42.27723 times as great as that of an electron. Shell Three is the last of the shells that contribute in the strong nuclear interaction. The force of the strong nuclear interaction is the sum of the electric charges at the surface of the shells.
Shell Four is the last of the shells that make up normal matter. Its value is the square of Shell Three, or 1787.36395 times that of an electron. Most of the mass of normal matter is in this shell. The sum of the masses of all four shells equates to the mass of the neutron, or 1838.69319 electron masses. This calculated value is within .009 electron masses of the best current measurement for Neutron mass.
The difference between calculated and measured mass exceeds the margin of error. This just means that there is something else at work within the dynamics of the structure. That there is such a thing is not unusual. We see similar dynamics when atoms form chemical compounds.
Merging a proton and neutron together, there is at first a repelling force. The positive outside of the neutron's Shell Two and the proton's Shell Two at first oppose, then snap together as the outside is breached exposing the two inside negative charges to each other. The dynamics of this merging deserves its own whole field of study. The success of QED might be enhanced when it is bathed in this new light.

Source Code for the calculator.

Shell structure of a Neutron to scale in units of Shell Four.
Shell Four is the small red dot in the center.