548 Last modified August 22, 2016

Nuclear Force and Electromagnetic Force

It is difficult to unite the electromagnetic force and the nuclear forces within Quantum Mechanics Theory because within that theory the forces are conveyed by the transfer of virtual particles. So when a virtual particle worth of force is conveyed, you get the whole thing. You can't just transfer a piece of it. So you need one flavor of virtual particle for the electromagnetic force and other flavors for the each of the other forces.

It is quite different within a Gauge Field Theory. Unification of all the forces of nature is easily achieved by considering a universe made of light and a shell construct for nuclear particles. This shell construct has a proton comprised of three sandwiched shells and a neutron comprised of four as in the Square-Of-The-Shells rule.

According to this rule the force of the electric charge on the shells is

C source code for the shells program. Compile and run from the Linux console with the following commands:
cc mevs.c
Click for a larger image.

at its maximum at the electromagnetic radius of the shells. The force of the charge follows the square of the shells rule so that the force of charge of each succeding shell is greater than that of the next shell out. Since the force is greater by the square and the electromagnetic force decreases as the inverse square of distance, the force of each individual shell is exactly the same as that of an electron when seen at any radius that is equal or greater than the radius of an electron.

The static electric force at the radius of Shell 2 and Shell 3 provide the strong nuclear force. The image shows a time sequence where two protons merge together to become trapped by the force of charge of the positive shell 2 and the negative shell 3. In the trapped state the two like charges of the two shells 3 repel each other. But the negative charge on the inside of shells 2 also repel trying to push the blue shells back together.

The red circle represents shell 2 and the blue circle represents shell 3.

The red sphere (S1) surface charge is 6.5 electron forces. The blue sphere (S2) surface charge is 42.2 electron forces. The sphere's react each with the other to produce the strong nuclear force (F). The force is the sum of the forces on the surfaces of the shells. The value of the forces are calculated within the Square-of-the-shells rule.

In order to merge, the protons must be moving fast enough to overcome the force of the two outer shells. Once trapped, about a hundred electrons worth of force is required to separate them. That is how the strong and the weak nuclear forces develop within the unified field theory.