My Own Contributions
By the turn of the twentieth century most physicists accepted the notion that the final irreducible constituent of all physical reality was the electromagnetic field. Lorentz used that construct of nature to describe all relativity phenomena in flat space-time.
Below are some of my contributions to the notion that all of nature behaves exactly as if all of nature is made of Light.
1. Bending a photon's path produces positive feedback.
This positive feedback tends to bend the photon's path more in the same direction. The force of the feedback is equal to the force that caused the bend. The path is thus bent twice as much as would be caused by the outside force by itself.
2. An electron exists as a shell structure.
This positive feedback coupled with front-to-back resonance traps photons in stable patterns. Only one certain frequency is stable by itself and produces the electron or positron. Other frequencies can be stable when trapped in sandwiched shells.
3. The shell structure of nuclear particles.
I knew that hadron spectra suggested that nuclear particles were structured. There seemed to be three of something within a proton and four of something within a neutron. No structure was ever found in an electron.
Protons would then be composed of three electron-like shells and neutrons would be composed of four. The inside shells would be more massive and smaller in size. The inner shells would need be exponentially more massive than the outer to get the sums of the masses to equate to observations.
4. Square of the shells rule.
The Square Of The Shells Rule is: With the mass and the electric charge of the electron taken as unity, and starting with the mass and the force of electric charge of a neutron's outer shell, the mass and the force of electric charge of the inner particle shells is equal to the square of that of the next shell out.
I wrote a little graphics program to simulate an electromagnetic field trapped in a resonant circle. It must complete a circle in a multiple of its wave length to satisfy resonance. I was interested to see how many wave lengths would complete one circle. The program showed me that the same electrical polarity of the field remained on the outside of the circle when one wave length completed the circle.
The effective force of the electric charge of each of the inner shells is much greater than that of the electron because of their smaller radius. When the force of charge of the inner shells are sensed at the radius of the larger electron, they are exactly that of the electron.
5. How come the Quantum. Electromagnetic saturation.
Planck's constant shows up in equations at exactly the place where you would expect to see amplitude. Amplitude is strangely absent from the equations. The positive and negative peaks of photons must exist at some amplitude. If that amplitude is a variable, it must be in equations that calculate photon action. Since amplitude is not there, peak amplitude must be a constant.
Then I realized a fact immediately obvious but strangely absent from teachings. Planck's constant derives from the electromagnetic saturation amplitude of free space. This being so, there is then a value of the maximum possible electric and magnetic amplitude of space.
All of the quantum effects in the universe result from the way that light propagates through space. Each photon exists in a spatial area with two points of saturated amplitude. The points are opposite in polarity with one following the other through space.
6. Electromagnetic gravity.
Gravity was the greatest problem. At first I thought of a jumble of electromagnetic remnants as the diminished fields from all photons mingled in space. I thought that these remnants might contribute to the saturation so that it occurred at an offset.
Then, I came across the work of Dr. Albrecht Giese linked by the gold button. I saw immediately that he had nailed it. Electromagnetic gravity was a simple process of refraction. I knew that the presence of electric and magnetic activity determined the value of the two constants of empty space and so determined the impedance of space in the area. Impedance determines the speed of light as in the equation. The path of light bends toward the direction of greater impedance. All electromagnetic activity must therefore gravitate toward greater impedance.
7. Nuclear Dynamics.
It was sometime after the year 2000 that I realized that the mechanism of nuclear dynamics was obvious in the photon particle structure that I hypothesized. The strong nuclear force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance, then disappear when that distance is exceeded.
I knew that electric charge amplitudes equal to the strong force were present in the model, but didn't realize how the dynamic developed. When I pondered this in my later years, I saw that the inner shells of protons must be trapped inside the outer shells.
The dynamic develops when the inside shells must force their way through like charged inside circumference of the larger shells. The sum of the charges on shells 2 and shells 3 equate to the value of the strong nuclear interaction.
There is, however, another possibility. It is possible that the two shells 4 might punch through shells 3 and find equilibrium. That situation could provide a much more powerful bond. That kind of binding might be what we see in neutron stars and such.
8. The Nature of the Electron Orbit.
There is a problem with the classic notion that electrons might orbit atomic nuclei and be held in place by electromagnetic force. Instead they seem to exist in a kind of cloud around the nuclei. In the model that I propose, the electrons engulf the nuclei with the same shell structure pattern as the nucleons themselves. Electrons avoid ever being in the same state by occupying different planes around the nuclei.
The dynamic is that the positively charged outer shell of protons face off against positively charged inward facing shells of electrons. Electrons negative charge begins at the circumference of the electron and face outward. A corresponding positive charge begins at the circumference and faces inward.
This notion grew gradually as I pondered the sizes of electrons and protons. When it became obvious that the strong nuclear force derived from the way shells two of protons engulfed shells three and four, it seemed reasonable that electrons would do the same and engulf protons in atoms.