Electron Structure Discovered

Particles that seem to come out of high-energy atomic collisions may have nothing to do with what was in the nuclei, but instead may be manufactured on the spot by the energy of the colliding particles. To avoid confusion about what came out and what was generated by the energy only, a group began probing nuclei using non-destructive low-energy electron beams on the order of 150 to 200 GeV. The shell structure of electrons, and the layered structure of hadronic particles begin to show up at these energies.

As indicated in the gold link this was predicted some time ago. We must use less energy to discover the electromagnetic structure of elementary particles. High energy beams blast right through the outer shells and only detect the more massive inner shells.

We ran across this article about a study that started back in the year 2000.

Science News, May 5, 2001 by P. Weiss
The data from this experiment suggest that, while magnetization may still rise smoothly from the proton's edges to its center, the proton's electric charge has a more complicated distribution. For example, says Kees de Jager of the Jefferson lab, charge may actually increase with distance from the center at certain radiuses.

Doctor Robert Hofstadter of Stanford first suggested that nuclear particles seemed to be made up of electrically charged shells. We sometimes say that Robert Hofstadter received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1961 for discovering the structure of atomic nuclei. We would be more accurate to say that Hofstadter's Nobel prize was for discovering that atomic nuclei have structure. The scientific community did not accept Hofstadter's shell-structure idea. These new findings are beginning to show, however, that we may need to revisit Hofstadter's shells.
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