201 Last modified March 03, 2014
Nature's Natural Facts
Space is flat in the classic sense and extends forever outward throughout the empty void. It has no end. It does not expand, stretch, or distort in any sense. It is simply empty nothingness. This concept not only predicts but demands all observed phenomena including relativity and all the forces of nature.
Time plods on from past to future at a constant rate. It does not distort or change its rate of progress in response to the movement of objects. Objects experience time as a count of repetitions of patterns in atoms that comprise the objects. The repetition rate of patterns in atoms slow with movement because the most elemental constituent of all physical reality must always move at the invariant speed of light relative to a special inertial frame of reference. Objects in motion thus experience time as moving slower than objects at rest because their most elemental constituents must move through a greater distance to complete their patterns. All of nature consists of this most elemental constituent. This causes all of the observed spatial distortion of objects in motion.
Special Inertial Frame
All of nature exists in the inertial frame of reference that is here and now. All movement in this inertial frame is relative to a special inertial frame that is at rest in space. This special inertial frame is observable as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is black-body radiation that represents the temperature of space debris. The Milky Way Galaxy and all the neighboring galaxies move through the background toward the constellation Leo at the rate of about five hundred miles per second.
The empty space has two properties that determine the speed of light. These two properties represent the ability of empty space to transport electric and magnetic activity. Electric and magnetic activity affect the two properties such that the presence of electric and magnetic activity impede additional activity by slowing the rate of change of electric and magnetic amplitude. This negative feedback property provides gravitational phenomena by restricting the speed of light in areas of massive activity. Massive objects comprised solely of electromagnetic activity provide islands of massive electromagnetic activity and affect the speed of light in close proximity to them. The path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. Comprised solely of electromagnetic patterns, massive objects must migrate toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. This electromagnetic activity provides all gravitational phenomena.
All electromagnetic activity in the universe connects to all other electromagnetic activity in the universe by instantaneous coupling of charge. When this gravitational phenomena causes a change in momentum of any object in space, conservation demands an exchange of energy. This exchange occurs instantaneously via frequency shift in electromagnetic activity. The frequency of photons in space must change to accommodate this. Free photons moving through space produce gravity and experience a gradual frequency shift toward the red end of the spectrum as the gravity they provide causes momentum change in other space entities.
Red Shift Amount
The amount of red shift is generally time dependent but may differ depending upon the photon's path through space. Paths that traverse very energetic regions may red shift differently than paths that traverse less energetic regions. Each galaxy produces very energetic beams that spew out perpendicular to the galactic plane. Photons that pass through these beams may shift frequency more than photons that do not pass through the beams.
Photon frequency may vary smoothly from almost zero to almost infinity but the electric and magnetic field amplitude exist as sine waves that always peak at a finite constant maximum amplitude. This finite constant maximum amplitude provides the quantum nature of electromagnetic energy. The electric and magnetic fields of all electromagnetic activity contain points that peak at this amplitude. Spatially extended fields drive these points through space at the constant speed of light.
The fields exist as crossed planes and extend instantly outward forever away from the points. Since the area of a plane increases as the square of distance, force field amplitude decreases as the square of distance. Changing amplitude throughout the fields couple instantly to drive the points through space. Fields drive the points but interaction only happens near the points. When interaction does happen, phase dynamics between interacting entities determine the exact location of the interaction. This provides the observed uncertainty since these dynamics can never be known.
Electromagnetic fields may interfere with each other to deflect their progress through space. This deflection may occur such that the electric plane occupies the radius of the bent path. When the electric plane occupies that radius the negative and positive electric fields can not be symmetrical. Which ever field occupies the outside of the bend dominates to produce an electric charge that originates at the radius of the bend. The charge amplitude relates to the bend radius such that the smaller the bend radius the greater the charge amplitude.
The electric charge at the bend radius of a photon path repels itself to produce positive feedback that bends the path more in the same direction. At one certain frequency, complete stable patterns may resonate to form an electron and a positron. The stability of the pattern comes from positive feedback and resonance. The dual nature of pair production comes from the necessity for equal interference energies. Electrons and positrons thus formed exist only as their electric and magnetic field structures.
A one wavelength loop completes the most simple pattern. The pattern spins at the speed of light in the primary direction and spins in a secondary flat-wise direction to form a sphere. The electric charge originates at the circumference of the pattern. It forms a structure such that one polarity faces toward the outside and the opposite polarity faces toward the inside.
Protons and Neutrons
More massive electron-like structures may form at frequencies greater than that of the electron. Four of these may be stable when arranged in sandwiched shells such that each subsequent shell mass and electric charge is the square of that of the next shell out. Each of these shells exist only as electromagnetic activity that exists at a circumference equal to the wave length of the equivalent energy of the shell's mass. Measurements of particle size for the proton and neutron were not correct because researchers used probe energy that was too high. They detected only the innermost shell. The correct shell sizes become detectable at probe energies less than two hundred mev.
Square of the Shells
The Square of the Shells rule sets the mass and charge value of the electron as unity and calculates the mass and charge value of shells that comprise protons and neutrons. Shell one, the neutron's outer shell, must contain the mass, energy, and charge difference between a proton and a neutron. When this shell one mass and charge value is set to 2.549920405 electron masses and electron charges, the rule works to provide the masses and charge values of all subsequent shells.
Constancy of Charge
Although the force of the electric field at the circumference of the neutron is more than twice that of an electron, it measures exactly one electron force when sensed at the larger radius of the electron. This is because the force diminishes as the square of distance away from the source and the electron size is about five times the size of the neutron's outer shell.
This leads to a major realization about how electrons interact with atomic nuclei. Electrons can not simply orbit oppositely charged nuclei because charge interaction would slow the electron and drive it into the nuclei. With this model, charge interaction from atomic nuclei snaps the larger electron onto the nuclei so that the electron engulfs the nuclei. The electron is held in place by electric charge equilibrium. The outward facing positive charge of the proton's outer shell faces off against the inward facing positive charge of the electron's only shell.
Atomic nuclei follow this same pattern. Sandwiched shells each face off against like charges and find equilibrium with smaller, more massive, inner shells. Inner shells dominate and hold the outer shells in place. Elements with more than one nucleus may form when the two most inner shells of a proton punch through the outer shells of another proton. The inner shells then find equilibrium between their outer facing negative charge and the inner facing negative charge of the proton's outer shell.
Strong force dynamics.
There is a strange dynamic to the strong nuclear forces that bind atomic nuclei together. The force seems to increase with distance for a very short distance then disappear altogether. The model presented here solves the mystery of that strange dynamic. Trapped inside the proton's outer shell, the inner shells must pass through like charges to separate. After the inside shells pass through the outer, the forces, although still there, are not sensed as anything other than the normal electric proton charge.