213 Last modified December 13, 2013
We can describe a universe so alien from our own that no established theory that we accept today can be real. Yet try as we might, we can devise no test that can distinguish this hypothetical universe from the universe that we sense around us. The notion has been around for about two hundred years and seems to have originated before the time of Maxwell. Physicists of the early twentieth century used the main postulate of the hypothesis to explain relativity phenomena. Despite all efforts to prove the notion false, it remains the only philosophically sound hypothesis that shows clear cause and effect for all natural phenomena that we know about.
Since its inception, this hypothesis has been ridiculed by main stream media and institutions of higher learning. A London newspaper in the 1800's published a cartoon depicting a prominent physicist attempting to unify the forces of nature by use of the hypothesis. This may be a clue that the major premise of the hypothesis originated with Michael Faraday. No matter who originated the notion, it stubbornly resists falsification even though most established theory can not possibly be real if the hypothesis is real. There is much evidence that the hypothesis is real. There is no evidence that it is not real. Google: TheEvidence.html Michael Faraday was not successful in his attempt to unify the forces but Professor Willis Thompson described a self-consistent unification somewhat later.
The major premise that we suspect originated with Faraday is: The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field. Maxwell produced equations that satisfied all of Faraday's experimental results. The equations could be solved for the speed of light with no consideration given for the speed of the inertial system that contained the light. This ended any reasonable notion that material things might consist of anything other than electromagnetic fields. Unreasonable notions of that early period do continue to flourish and still command the main body of established theory.
In the hypothesis, space-time is flat in the classic sense, and the speed of light is constant relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. Matter that is held together by a light-like substance must distort with movement because of the constant speed of light. Not only the shape of matter but the time experience of matter must distort. All physical reality is related to the speed of light because all physical reality is made of light. Physicists in the time of Lorentz pondered that concept and produced a set of equations that we know as the Lorentz transformations. Back then, they could not test the equations by experiment. Now we can test them. The equations hold true. Einstein used them in his theory of relativity.
Time dilation seems to be the part of relativity phenomena that is most difficult for people to grasp. It is very simple, however. In order to understand how it works we must remember that it is local time and not time in general that experiences distortion. Local time is the time experienced by the moving object. The time experience of any object is the count of repetitions of patterns within the object. Stop and think so you know this is true. Our time standard is a count of the vibration repeats of the Cesium atom. Patterns repeat more slowly relative to the fixed inertial frame in space because components that repeat in the patterns must move through a greater distance when the containing object is moving. The local time of the moving object is thus slowed by movement. Time dilation is nothing more than that.
Relativity phenomena provides the most direct evidence that all of nature consists solely of electric and magnetic activity. There is no other reasonable way to show cause for relativity. All things change shape and experience time differently when in motion. We can show cause for the phenomena when we consider that all motion must be relative to a fixed inertial frame that is at rest in space. The reality of relativity departs from the theory of relativity in that reality demands a fixed inertial frame at rest in space.
Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts reciprocity for observers viewing reciprocal movement. This gives rise to the famous Twins Paradox. Google: Twins Paradox. In the paradox, each twin sees the other experience time dilation but sees no time dilation for themselves. Each should then see the other as being older than himself when the twins are brought back together. Advocates for Einstein's version of relativity explain that one of the twins may experience more acceleration than the other. This is true, however, even though one twin experienced more acceleration than the other, acceleration does not matter in Einstein's theory. Only speed matters.
This does not happen with the Lorentz version of relativity supported here. Although the actual measurements are almost the same, there is a slight difference. Each twin experiences time dilation relative to an inertial reference frame that is at rest in space. Age differences then calculate correctly. The oldest twin moved the greatest distance relative to the fixed reference frame. This avoids the paradox and conforms to the Lorentz version of relativity. Google: Lorentz Ether Theory.
In actual practice we do use a special inertial frame to measure the motion of the Milky Way Galaxy through space. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation occupies an inertial frame that seems to be the same throughout the universe. All the nearby galaxies move through the CMBR toward the constellation Leo at a rate of about five hundred miles per second. Although institutions of learning teach against the fact, natural intuition has already correctly placed the CMBR as the special inertial frame that is at rest in space.
The discovery of quantum phenomena by Max Planck in 1900 sparked a revolution in physics that gave birth to quantum theory. Quantum theory was coupled with statistical probability and the uncertainty principle to describe a version of nature that was accepted by academia and is still taught as the greatest advancement in physics to date. Despite its success, the theory remains philosophically unsound at its foundation. It does not attempt to answer the questions, "how come the quantum, how come gravity, how come uncertainty, and how come matter."
There is a simple explanation for each of those. First, all quantum phenomena develops from the fact that the electric and magnetic amplitude of the E and B fields of photons are constants. We know this because the amplitude of the E and B fields are not part of the equation for photon action. (Planck's Constant.) If that amplitude were variable, it would necessarily be part of the equation. It is not there. Only the rate of change in amplitude expressed as frequency is there. It makes sense that the saturation amplitude of the E and B fields of photons is the maximum electric and magnetic amplitude that space can support. That is how come the quantum.
How come uncertainty? Statistical probability is a mathematical fact. It has its own set of well established laws and standards. We can apply those laws and standards to all of nature and arrive at a certain understanding of the general process of natural events. But, no matter the amount of data applied, it is composed of individual events each of which behaves in accord with its own set of natural laws.
When it approaches a target, an individual photon will interact with electrons in the target. Individual electrons in the target interact with an approaching photon depending upon phase relationships. The photon will bypass electrons that have an unfavorable phase to interact with electrons with a favorable phase relationship. That is the simplistic explanation of why we can never predict the exact position of photon interaction with a target. That is how come uncertainty.
Energy becomes matter when enough of it is confined in a local area. Pair creation of an electron and positron happens when a local concentration of energy exceeds the equivalent energy of their mass. All components of atomic nuclei are routinely created in electron-positron collision experiments. Electrons and positrons collide and out of the collisions come all sub-atomic particles. Observed in the laboratory, this process must also happen in space.
The Photon Theory of Matter advances the concept in relation to recent findings about nature. All of the new ideas derive from similar notions held by renowned physicists of the past and of the present. The most controversial idea seems to be that photons create gravity. This should not be controversial. It forms the backbone of established mainstream theory. It is a major component of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Photon theory advances this notion only slightly by stating that photons and only photons create and respond to gravity. We show the mechanism by which that happens.
According to the photon theory of matter, a residual electric field results from a bend in the path of photons. The field amplitude is greatest at, and inversely proportional to, the radius of the bend. The smaller the bend radius, the greater the charge sensed at that radius. Because sensed charge amplitude decreases as the square of distance from the charge source, sensed charge amplitude of a single bend is a constant value. The value is always equal to an electron's charge when sensed at a distance away that is greater than an electron's radius.
The Photon Theory of Matter departs from traditional particle sizes. Traditional measurements for particle size use a flawed technique. Probe energy is much too great to sense the subtle electromagnetic fields that mark the outer particle boundaries. These particle boundaries can be calculated. They exist at a circumference equal to one wavelength of the equivalent energy of the particles. Probes of energy levels designed to detect field reversal structures where the electron's outer negative charge abruptly changes to its inner positive charge will successfully measure the correct size for the electron.
Like charges repel. So the charge created by the bend in the path of a photon acts upon itself to bend the path more in the same direction. This action is termed, positive feedback. Positive feedback coupled with resonance can trap a photon in a stable pattern to produce an electron and a positron. While in this pattern, the photon retains all its properties including the production of, and response to, gravity. The inherent frequency stability of the photon shows up as inertia in the matter.
Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts the gravitational behavior of objects in our solar system with great success. But when applied on the galactic scale, something is wrong. Stars move around the galactic center faster than they should. In order to salvage GR theory, we need a new form of matter. Dark Matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for this discrepancy. Fritz Zwicky used the concept in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Google: Dark Matter.
Photon theory does not rely upon exotic states of matter including dark matter or dark energy or anything else that is not observed. Galaxies operate as the recycling behemoths of the universe. They convert matter to energy in stars and stars to energy in a super-massive ionic soup at galactic centers. Radiation and ionic debris spew out to form a halo around galaxies. This halo provides all the additional gravity needed to explain galactic rotation speeds.
Einstein's General Relativity theory demands that gravity attract light. Conversely, General Relativity also demands that light create gravity. Einstein was not alone and maybe not even the originator of the notion that light creates gravity. Sir Author Eddington showed a mechanism by which light must create gravity in his paper of 1920. Google is your friend: Eddington 1920.
No matter the theory we use, there can be no doubt that photons do create gravity. We also know that any gravitational source must provide energy to change the momentum of any object in space. Gravity provided by photons in space changes the momentum of objects in space. Photons in space must provide energy to change the momentum of objects in space. Experiments show that this does happen. This loss of energy by photons in space shows up as a red shift in the spectrum of energy in space. The energy loss is directly proportional to time just as we expect.
Through the ages there has never been a shortage of speculation about the mechanism of gravity. Among the speculation, Sir Author Eddington provided a version that is mathematically certain provided only that Maxwell's equations hold true. Published in his 1920 paper, Eddington ascribed refraction of light as the mechanism that produces gravity.
Eddington knew that the two constants of space, electric permittivity, and magnetic permeability, determine the speed of light. Those two properties are modified by the presence of electric and magnetic activity such that more activity increases the effect. The result is that the speed of light is slower where electric and magnetic activity is greater. The path of light must bend toward the direction where the speed of light is slower.
Established theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes most of the mass of matter. Photon theory predicts that electromagnetic activity constitutes all of the mass of matter. Given that electromagnetic activity creates gravity, what else can there be that creates gravity? Equations that convert mass to its energy equivalent demand that all of the mass convert. There is not something left over that might produce gravity. The released energy in such a conversion continues to create gravity. Gravity is conserved when mass becomes energy.
The force of gravity diminishes as the inverse square of distance. This is a clue that it exists as planes like the fields of electric and magnetic force. The area of a circular plane increases as the square of its radius. The area of a sphere increases as the cube of its radius. If gravity propagated as a spherical force, it should diminish as the inverse cube of distance. Since it exists as multiple plainer forces, it diminishes as we measure, as the inverse square of distance.
There is another powerful similarity between gravity and electromagnetic forces. They seem to exist instantly in that they do not suffer aberration. Although a photon moves through space at the constant speed of light, the spatially extended field structure does not seem to be swept back but moves right along intact. If the planes of force propagated at the speed of light, they would trail behind and so be swept back from the leading point of the photon.