230 Last modified March 17, 2016

Recent Realizations

For over a hundred years now physicists have known that photons both create gravity and respond to gravity. However there has never been a clear understanding about just what it is that causes gravity. Over the years we have thought about that a lot and recently came across the web site of Doctor Albrecht Giese. He ascribes the cause of gravity to the refraction of light. This notion was also held by Sir Author Eddington who published a paper about it in 1920. Excerpt here

Doctor Giese describes the mechanism very well but does not provide the fundamental cause of the refraction other than that gravity slows the speed of light and the path of light bends toward the direction where the speed of light is slower. But this seems to be a circular argument. We can provide the fundamental cause of the slowing of light speed and break out of that circular argument. But first a little background:

The main purpose of this web site is to investigate whether or not there exists anything in this universe other than electromagnetic activity. That idea is more than a hundred years old and has never been falsified. Since that idea precludes most accepted theories, the falsification of it should be a high priority, but it is hardly ever even mentioned in mainstream scientific media. The oldest mention we can find of the idea comes from the time of Michael Faraday and was of the form: "The final irreducible constituent of all physical reality is the electromagnetic field." That old idea easily unifies all the forces of nature as shown here.

Now to get back to the fundamental cause for the slowing of light speed in the presence of matter. In accord with the old idea that has never been falsified, all of matter consists of electromagnetic activity. It is just a small step forward then to hypothesize that electromagnetic activity provides the mechanism that slows the speed of light. That mechanism is that the presence of electromagnetic activity increases the impedance of space. We can think of this as negative feedback provided by electromagnetic activity upon itself.

In order for this to work we must examine just how it is that light speed is slowed. Accepted theory is that light is repeatedly absorbed and emitted by electrons in atoms, but this does not work here. Why should it be that the impedance of space determines the speed at which atoms absorb and emit light? It is more likely that the impedance of space slows the rate at which electromagnetic amplitude changes. With that notion, we close the circle to complete the hypothesis that gravity is nothing more than the impedance of space as regulated by the presence of electromagnetic activity.

We can now predict that the amount of red shift in light from distant objects in space will vary according to the amount of electromagnetic activity the light encounters on its way to the observer. The reasoning is this: The gravity provided by the electromagnetic activity of photons on the way to the observer may change the momentum of objects in space. This change of momentum requires energy that must come from the photons providing the gravity. Clouds of ions and space debris move in and out of the light path, and red shift varies accordingly.

We suspect that this variation in red shift has already been observed. However, no one would dare publish a report about such an observation. What we do find published are reports about quasars that become normal galaxies over the space of a few years. How can that happen without a change in the amount of red shift?

Electromagnetic activity in space directly determines the impedance of space which directly determines the speed of light. The speed of light directly determines gravity in accordance with the notions of Sir Author Eddington and Doctor Albrecht Giese. Proof in support of the hypothesis are time variant changes the amount of red shift in light from distant quasars.